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41 Cards in this Set

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electic approach
an approcach to psychotherapy, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
resistence
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
transference
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
client-centered therapy (Rogerian Therapy)
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth
systematic desensitization
a type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
aversive conditioning
a type of counter-conditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
cognitive therapies
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
cognitive-behavior therapy
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
prozac
partially blocks the reabsorption and removal of serotonin from synapses (SSRI)
lithium
a chemical that provides an effective drug therapy for the mood swings of bipolar (manic-depressive) disorders
electroconvulsive therapy
ECT
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
lobotomy
a now-rare psychosugrical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients; the procedure cuts the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
flooding
over exposing a person to a fear to get them over it
Gestalt Therapy
used to unite the person or to make them whole and give them better self understanding
rational-emotive therapy
cognitive therapy; idea that there are certain common thoughts that you can get past if you don't worry about them; unhappiness comes from outside events that I cannot control, but I can control the inside (ZEN)
trephining
making a hole in the head to let out the spirits
(old treatment)
phenothiazines
main drug given to schizophrenics
(came from an antihistimine)
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a large request
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent
Asch's experiment with lines
proved that people conform to the majority so that they aren't the oddball
conditions that strengthen conformity
1) group has at least 3 people
2) group is unanimous
3) status of group
4) lack of prior commitment
Milgram's obedience experiment
teacher and learner; teacher had to punish learner for every answer he got wrong with increasingly powerful electric shocks; tested how much people can be commanded
conditions that strengthen obedience
1) experimenter is in close proximity
2) prestige of experiment
3) learner was unseen
4) no influence from other teachers
social facilitation
improved performance of tasks in the presence of others
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal then when individually accountable
deindividuation
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occuring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
group polarization
the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within a group
groupthink
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
diffusion of responsibility
when in a group, you don’t take as big a responsibility for things
bystander effect
Everyone thinks someone else will call the police, so they don’t do it
first impressions
Show them your best right away
First impressions are lasting
halo effect
a social psychology phenomenon that has to do with people seeing if you’re good at one thing, then you’re good at other things; as if you have a halo on your head
playing hard to get
Change of heart study
congitive dissonance
If you can get someone to do you a favor, they will like you better than if you do them a favor
proximity
When you’re around someone a lot, you see them a lot, so you tend to like them better
mere exposure effect
: joke where people had to pick which pictures of themselves that they like the best, and they ended up picking the mirror images of themselves
physical attractiveness
Everyone has a different view
Not just a matter of looks; sometimes its got to do with confidence, or weird things such as body ratios
Its all hardwire, its not absolute
similarity
As you find out more about someone, as you find out that they share more/less in common with you, we do not change ourselves or our attitudes, we change our friends.
We tend to be attracted to people that remind us of ourselves  birds of a feather flock together
we like it when people are alike
when you like someone you overestimate the similarities
just-world phenomenon
the world is just; if something bad happens to you, you probably deserved it
territoriality
personal space