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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Neurons
individual nerve cells responsible for transmitting info through body
Dendrites
"branches" that extend from cell body; receive neural impulses and convey messages toward the SOMA
Soma
cell body-absorbs nutrients,produces protein, and integrates info
Axon
coated tubelike structure that carries impulses away from soma to other neurons
Action potential
an electrochemical impulse that travels down an axon to the axon terminal
Axon terminal buttons
small structures at the ends of axons that release neurotransmitter chemicals
Nerve
a bundle of axons from many neurons
Ions
molecules that carry positive or negative electrical charges
Resting Potential
the resting state of the axon membrane which consists of a high concentration of sodium molecules outside the axon and a high concentration of potassium inside
Sodium Potassium "pump"
an ongoing process whereby sodium ions are constantly migrating out and potassium ions are moved in
Myelin sheath
fatty substance that serves as an insulator;helps to facilitate the speed of the action potential as it moves down the axon(usually complete at about 12 years old)
Neurotransmitters
special chemicals released from axon terminal buttons; they cross the synaptic gap and bind to receptor sites on the membrane of another neuron
"Lock&Key"
the concept that each neurotransmitter has a particular geometric design and can only attach to specific receptor sites
All-or-none Principle
an axon either fires action potential or does not- no in between- and one "firing" can never be more or less than another- they all fire at same intensity
Growth (from pituitary)
too little-dwarfism
too much- giantism
Endocrine system
contains the "glands" which secrete chemicals that contain info that effects behavioral change or helps maintain body function
Synapse
the junction between 2 neurons where the neurotransmitter passes from the axon of one neuron to the dendrite of another neuron
Homeostasis
the body is steady state of formal functioning
Vesicles
small "capsule" like protectors of neurotransmitters found in terminal buttons they release the neurotransmitters where they "diffuse" and stimulate
Hypothalamus
a group of neuron cell bodies that ultimately controls the endocrine system and regulates such drives as hunger,thirst,sex, and aggression
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the part of the nervous system outside the entral nervous system that consists of nerves going to and from the brain and spinal cord
Somatic nervous system (SNS)
a subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that consists of nerves carrying afferent sensory info and efferent motor info to and from the central nervous system organs, and the skeletal muscles
afferent
incoming sensory info
efferent
outgoing motor info
Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
a subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that maintains normal functioning of glands, heart muscles, and the smooth muscles of the blood vessels and internal organs
Parasympathetic nervous system
the part of the autonomic nervous system that is normally dominant when a person is in a relaxed,nonstressful physical and mental state
Sympathetic nervous system
the part of the autonomic nervous system that dominates when a person is under mental or physical stress
central nervous system (CNS)
the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord
Brain
an extremely complex mass of nerve tissue organized into structures that control all voluntary and much involuntary behavior
Spinal Cord
The part of the nervous system found within the spinal column that is involved in reflexes and relaying neural info to and from the brain
Reflexes
movements that are initiated by an external stimulus and do not require input from the brain
Reflex arc
the path that the neural impulse travels to initiate a reflex
Cerebral Cortex
the bumpy, convoluted area on the outside surface of the brain that contains primary sensory centers,motor control centers, and areas responsible for higher mental processes
Frontal Lobes
the cortical lobes located at the front of the brain whose functions include motor and speech control the ability to plan ahead, initiative, and self awareness
Motor control area
the area located at the back of the frontal lobes of the cortex that is responsible for instigating voluntary movement
Broca's area
a brain area found in the left frontal love that controls the muscles used to produce speech
Association areas
the areas in the cerebral cortex that are involved in such mental operations as thinking, memory, learning , and problem solving
Parietal Lobes
The cortical lobes located at the top of the brain that are the seat of body sensations and memory of the environment
Projection areas
Parietal areas of the brain that receive incoming sensory info
Occipital lobes
the cortical lobes located at the back of the brain that are dedicated entirely to vision and visual perception
Temporal Lobes
the cortical lobes whose functions include auditory perception,language,memory,and some emotional control
Wernicke's area
an area of the cerebral cortex responsible for the thinking and interpretory aspect of language production
Dyslexia
an inablility or difficulty in reading
Corpus Callosum
a connecting bridge of nerve fibers between the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
Thalamus
a subcortical area located below the corpus callosum that serves as the major relay area for incoming sensory info
Limbic system
an interconnected system of subcortical sructures involved with many types of emotional behavior,particularly aggression
Cerebellum
the brain area responsible for maintaining smooth movement and coordinating motor activity
Brain Stem
an area of the brain below the subcortex and in front of the cerebellum that includes the pons, the medulla, and the reticular formation
Pons
a brain stucture located at the top of the brain stem that is involved with function such as respiration,movement, and sleep
medulla
a structure in the brain stem responsible for automatic body functions, such as respiration
Reticular activating system (RAS)
a diffuse set of cells in the medulla, pons,hypothalamus,and thalamus that serves as a filter for incoming sensory info