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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
judging the extent to which behavior is caused by the peron or by the situation.
causal attribution
deciding that someone is responsible for his or her behavior.
dispositional attribution
deciding that circumstances are responsible for a person's behavior
situational attribution
the tendncy to atribute other people's behavior to dispositional factors.
fundamental attribution error
the tendency to make dispositional attributions for our own positive behaviors and situational attribution for our own negative behaviors, especially when our self-esteen is threatened
self-serving bias
making judgements about other people
person perception
guides our predictions of a person's behavior and our desire to interact with that person
first impression
the tendency for one person's expectations to make another person behave in acordance with them.
self-fulfilling prophecy
evalutaions of ideas, events, objects, or people.
unpleasant state of tension associated with increased physiological and psychological arousal, caused by the realization that one has beliefs that are inconsistent with each other or one's behavior
cognitive dissonance theory
behaving in accordance with group expectations with little or now overt pressure to do so
following orders given by an authority
the act of helping someone who is in immediate need of aid
bystander intervention
as the # of bystanders increases, the likelihood of a bystander's intervening decreases
diffusion of responsibility
"tip of the iceburg". represents a tiny region of the mind
conscious mind
accessible memories (memories that we can recall at will)
preconscious mind
the bulk of the mind, contains material we cannot recall at will
unconscious mind
the part of the personality that contains inborn biological drives and that seeks immediate gratification
id (pleaseure principle)
part of the personality that helps the individual adapt to external realty by making compromises between the id, the supergo, and the environment.
ego (reality principle)
the part of the personality that acts as a moral guide telling us what we should and should not do
a process that distorts reality to prevent the individual from being overwhelmed by anxiety
defense mechanism
attributing our undesirable feelings to others
a person who fears the consequences of expressing his or her feelings toward a particular person might express them towards someone less threatening
countering undesirable feelings by acting in a manner opposite to them
reaction formation
displaying immature behaviors that relieved anxiety in the past
providing socially acceptable reasons for our innappropriate behaviors
tests based on the assumption the we will "project" our repressed feelings and conflicts onto ambiguous stimuli
projective tests
consists of one blank card and 19 cards containing black and white pictures of people in ambiguous situations
TAT (Thematic Apperception Test)
a test that asks participants to report what they see in inkblots
Rorscach Test (Inkblot test)
The humanistic approach to personality
hold that human beings are naturally good
an individual's predisposition to try to fulfill her or his potentials
a person's unique pattern of behavior, tied to specific situations
operant conditioning theory
belief that personality traits, environmental factors, and overt behavior affect each other
reciprocal determinism
distinctive combinations of personal dispositions
trait theories
favors the study of biological causes of psychological disorders
biopsychological viewpoint
grew out of the biopsychological viewpoint, but instead of looking for underlying biological causes of psychological disorders, it looks for unconscious ideas.
psychoanalytic viewpoint
looks for mental causes of behavior
behavioral viewpoint
stresses the importance of self-actualization
humanistic viewpoint
cultural influence on psychological disorders
social-cultural viewpoint
the view that people differ in their biological predispositions to develop psychological disorders
diathesis-stress model
a psychological disorder marked by persistant anxiety that disrupts everyday functioning
anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistant state of anxiety that exists independently of any particular stressful situation
generalized anxiety disorder
a persistent, recurring though
a repetitive action you feel compelled to perform
experience of excessive or innappropriate fear
the fear of being in public
an anxiety disorder marked by sudden, unexpected attacks of overwhelming anxiety, often associated with the fear of dying or "losing one's mind"
panic disorder
a person's conscious mind loses access to certain thoughts, feelings, and memories
dissociative disorder
the anability to recall personally significant memories
dissociative amnesia
memorey loss characteristic of dissociative amnesia as well as the loss of one's identity and fleeing from one's prior life.
dissociative fugue
multiple personality disorder in which the person has two or more distinct personalities that alternate with one another
dissociative identity disorder
a psychological disorder marked by prolonged perios of extreme depression or elation, often unrelated to the person's current situation
mood disorder
a mod disorder marked by depression that lasts so long the person may be unable to function in everyday life
major depression
a mood disorder marked by perios of mania alternating with longer periods of major depression
bipolar disorder
suffering from severe depression in certain seasons
seasonal affective disorder
a severe psychological disorder characterized by impaired social, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual functioning
hallucinations, delusions, suspiciousness, and argumentativeness
paranoid schizophrenia
unusual motor behavior, often alternating between catatonic excitement and catatonic stupor
atatonic schizophrenia