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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
classical conditioning
a learning procedure in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a learned, neutral stimulus
neutral stimulus
a stimulus that does not initially elicit a response
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
an event that elicits a certain predictable response without previous training
unconditioned reponse (UCR)
an organism's automatic (or natural) reaction to a stimulus
conditioned stimulus (CS)
a once-neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
conditioned response (CR)
the learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus
responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli
the ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli
the gradual disapperance of a conditioned response when the conditoned stimulus is reapeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus
operant conditioning
learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in occurrence
stimulus or event that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated
primary reinforcer
stimulus that is naturally rewarding, such as food or water
secondary reinforcer
stimulus such as money that becomes reinforcing through its link with a primary reinforcer
fixed-ratio schedule
schedule of reinforcement in which a specific number of correct responses is required before reinforcement can be obtained
variable-ratio schedule
schedule of reinforcement in which an unpredictable number of reponses are required before reinforcement can be obtained
fixed-interval schedule
schedule of reinforcement in which a specific amount of time must elapse before a response will elicit reinforcement
variable-interval reinforcement
schedule of reinforcement in which changing amounts of time must elapse before a response will obtain reinforcement
response chain
learned reactions that follow one another in sequence, each reaction producing the signal for the next
aversive control
process of influencing behavior by means of unpleasant stimuli
negative reinforcement
increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs
escape conditioning
training of an organism to remove or terminate an unpleasant stimulus
avoidance conditioning
training of an organism to withdraw from an unpleasant stimulus before it starts
social learning
form of learning in which the organism observes and imitates the behavior of others
cognitive learning
form of altering behavior that involves mental processes and may result form observation or imitation
cognitive map
a mental picture of spatioal relationships or relationships between events
latent learning
learning that is not demonstrated by an immediate, observable change in behavior
learned helplessness
condition in which repeated attemtps to control a situation fail, resulting in the belief that the situation is uncontrollable
learning by imitaitng others; copying behavior
behavior modification
systematic application of learning principles to change people's acitons and feelings
token economy
conditioning in which desirable behavior is reinforced with valueless objects, wchich an be accumulated and exchanged for valued rewards
Ivan Pavlov
-discovered the principle of classical conditioning
-Pavlov's dog
4 elements involved in classical conditioning
spontaneous recovery
a CR will sometimes reappear spontaneously after extinction
classical conditioning and human behavior
classical conditioning may be used to affect human behavior, such as taste aversions and fears
B.F. Skinner
operant conditioning means that human behavior is influenced by one's history of rewards and punishments
4 kinds of reinforcers
positive, negative, primary & secondary
2 types of reinforcement
continuous and partial
reinforcing responses that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior