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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the definition of memory?
it's an active system that stores, organizes, alters, and recovers information
What are the functions and limitations of the sensory memory?
It can hold an exact copy of what is seen or heard for a few seconds or less
What are the functions and limitations of short term memory?
holds small amounts of information for relatively brief periods
What is the function and limitations of long term memory?
a more permanent storehouse for information
What are some explanations of forgetting?
a curve for forgetting
short term memory decay
poor coding
Interference
Motivated forgetting
What are several techniques for memory improvement?
Rehearsal
Cues
Recitation
What causes memory decay?
disuse
cue
dependent forgetting
interference
What are the steps of the SQ4R study method?
S Survey
Q Question
R1 Read
R2 Recite
R3 Relate
R4 Review
What are the 6 steps of the scientific method?
Observation
Defining the problem
Proposing the hypothesis
Gathering evidence/testing hypothesis
Publishing results
Theory building
Natural observation?
observing behavior as it unfolds in natural settings
What is the Correlational method?
Making measurements to discover the relationship between events
What is the experimental method?
Investing behavior through controlled experimentation
What is the Clinical method?
Studying psychological problems and therapies in clinical setting
What is the survey method?
Using questionaires and surveys to poll large groups of people
What is Natural setting?
The enviroment in which an organism lives. For animals the setting is usually a wilderness area. For humans it may be constructed enviroment.
What is the observer effect?
Changes in a person's behavior brought about by an awareness of being observed
What is the observers bias?
The tendency of an observor to distort observations or perceptions to match his or her expectations
What is the Anthropomorphic fallacy?
The error of attributing human thoughts, feelings, or motives to animals, especially as a way of explaining their behavior.
What is an experiment?
A formal trial undertaken to confirm or disconfirm a fact or principal
What is a hypothesis?
The predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about the relationship between variable
What is an Independent variable?
In an experiment, the condition being investigated as a possible cause of some change in behavior. The values that this variable takes are chosen by the experimenter
What is the dependent variable?
In an experiment, the condition (usually a behavior) that is affected by the independent variable.
What are controls?
In a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to all experimental conditions or variable except the independent variable.
Recall what is means to replicate an experiment?
To repeat an experiment
What is experimenter effect?
changes in behavior caused by the unintended influence of an experimentor
What is self-fullfilling prophecy?
A prediction that prompts people to act in ways that make the prediction come true.
What is placebo?
an inactive substance given in the place of a drug in psychological research or by physicians who wish to treat a complaint by suggestion.
What is the placebo effect?
changes in behavior due to expectations that a drug (or other treatment) will have some effect
What is double blind research?
an arrangement in which both subjects and experimenters are unaware of whether subjects are in the experimental group or the control group
What are the major difference between psychology and pseudosciences?
Psycology is scientific and observes behavior and mental processes
Psudeo-psychology is any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior
What is psychology?
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes?
What are the four major goals of scientific psychology?
Description
Understanding
Prediction
Control
Distinguish between a clinical psychologist and psychiatrist
A clinical psychologist is someone who specializes in the treatment of psychological and behavioral disturbances or who does research on such disturbances and a psychiatrist is a medical doctor with additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional disorders
Identify at least two pseudosciences and explain why they seem to work
Palmistry and astrology. Because people want to believe it.
Watson
(1878-1958) he discovered behaviorism (the study of overt, observable behavior) He simply observed the relationship between stimuli (events in the environment) and an animal's response (any muscular action, glandular activity, or other identifiable behavior) behaviorism helped make psychology a natural science
Freud
(1856-1939)he believed that all thoughts, emotions, and actions are determined, nothing was an accident. He is known for creating psychoanalysis, the first "talking therapy" Freud's legacy is still evident psychodynamic theories, which emphasize internal motives, conflict, and unconscious forces
Maslow
(1908-1970) Maslow rejected the Freudian idea that personality is ruled by unconscious forces. Maslow, a humanists believes in free will, the ability to make voluntary choices. Humanist believe that if you deprive new-born infants of human love, it is the same as depriving them of food. He believed in self-actualization-developing one's potential fully and becoming the best person possible.
What is the definition of instinctual behavior?
a natural impulse
Recall how classical or Pavlovian conditioning occurs
a learned response that normally is a reflex
What is an unconditional stimulus?
a relex you're born with that ellicits a response
What is an unconditioned response?
a reflex response elicited by a conditioned stimulus
What is a conditional stimulus?
a response because it has been repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus
What is a conditioned response?
a learned response elicited by a conditioned stimulus
Identify stimulus generalization when presented an example
seeing something similar to the stimulus and getting the same reaction
Recall how extinction occurs
When you remove the reinforcement (the reward)
Recall how spontaneous recovery occurs
the reapperance of a learned response after it's apparent extinction
Recall the role of classical conditional in explaining phobias
a learned emotion reaction to a previously neutral stimulus