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70 Cards in this Set

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Development
the sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death.
Zygote
A one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and egg.
Germinal Stage
The first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception.
Embryonic Stage
The second stage of prenatal development, lasting from two weeks until the end of the second month. Vital organs and bodily systems begin to form. Organism is now called an embryo.
Fetal Stage
The third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth. Muscles and bones begin to form. Organism is now known as a fetus. Sex organs start to develop.
Age of Viability
The age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth. 85% survival rate at 26 to 28 weeks.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
A collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy. Problems include a small head, heart defects, irritability, hyperactivity, and retarded mental and motor development.
Motor Development
The progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities.
Cephalocaudal Trend
The head-to-foot direction of motor development. Children gain control over the upper part of their bodies before the lower part.
Proximodistal Trend
The center-outward direction of motor development. Children gain control over their torso before their extremities.
Maturation
Development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one's genetic blueprint. it is a product of genetically programmed physical changes that come with age.
Developmental Norms
Indicate the average (median) age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities.
Temperment
Characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity. Infants show consistent differences in emotional tone, tempo of activity, and sensitivity to environmental stimuli very early in life.
Attachment
The close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers.
Seperation Anxiety
Emotional distress seen in many infants when they are seperated from people with whom they have formed an attachment.
Cognitive Development
Transitions in youngsters' patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving.
Sensorimotor Period
Lasts from birth to age 2. infants are developing the ability to coordinate their sensory input with their motor actions. A child can use mental symbols to represent thought.
Object Performance
Develops when a child recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visable.
Preoperational Period
Extends from age 2 to age 7 when children gradually improve in their use of mental images. EX/ Beaker of water.
Conservation
Piaget's term for the awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance.
Centration
The tendancey to focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other important aspects.
Irreversibility
The inability to envision reversing an action. Can't mentally "undo" something.
Egocentrism
Characterized by a limited ability to share another person's viewpoint.
Animism
The belief that all things are living.
Concrete Operational Period
The development of mental operations, lasting from age 7 to 11. Children can perform operations only on images of tangible (physical, real) objects and actual events. Decentration and reversibility, decline in egocentrism and gradual mastery of conservation.
Formal Operational Period
Begins at 11 years of age. Children begin to apply their operations to abstract concepts in addition to concrete objects. (Justice, love, free will)
Primary Sex Characteristics
The structures necessary for reproduction.
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Physical features that distinguish one sex from the other but that are not essential for reproduction.
Puberty
The stage during which sexual functions reach maturity, which marks the begining of adolescence.
Midlife Crisis
A difficult, turbulent period of doubts and reappraisal of one's life.
Dementia
An abnormal condition marked by multiple cognitive deficits that include memory impairment.
Sex
The biologically based categories of female and male.
Gender
Culterally constructed distinctions between femininity and masculinity
Gender Stereotypes
Widely held beliefs about females' and males' abilities, personality traits, and social behavior.
Gender Differences
Actual disparities between the sexes in typical behavior or average ability.
Gender Roles
Expectations about what is appropriate behavior for each sex.
Social Psychology
The branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals' thoughts, feelings, and behaviours are influenced by others.
Person Perception
The process of forming impressions of others.
Social Schemas
Organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and people.
Stereotypes
Widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group.
Illusory Correlation
Occurs when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than they have actually seen. EX/ "I've never met an honest lawyer."
Ingroup
A group that one belongs to and identifies with
Outgroup
A group that one does not belong to or identify with
Attributions
Conclusions that people draw about the causes of events, others' behavior and their own behavior. People have a strong need to understand their experiences and they want to make sense out of their own behavior, others' actions, and events in their lives. EX/ You conclude that a friend turned down your invite b/c she's overworked.
Internal Attributions
Ascribe the causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings. EX/ Parents find out teenage son just banged up the car blame it on his carelessness.
External Attributions
Ascribe the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints. EX/ Parents find out their teenage son just banged up the car blame it on slippery road conditions.
Fundamental Attribution Error
Refers to observers' bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others' behavior.
Self-Serving Bias
The tendancy to attribute one's success to personal factors and one's failures to situational factors.
Idividualism
Involves putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships.
Collectivism
Putting group goeals ahead of personal goals and defining one's identity in terms of the groups one belongs to.
Interpersonal Attraction
Refers to positive feelings toward another. EX/ Liking, friendship, admiration, lust, and love.
Matching Hypothesis
Males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners.
Reciprocity
Liking those who show that they like you.
Passionate Love
A complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion.
Compasionate Love
Warm, trusting, tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwined with one's own.
Attitudes
Positive or negative evaluations of objects of thought.
Cognitive Disownance
Exists when related cognitions are inconsistent--that is, when they contritict each other.
Elaboration Likelihood Model
There are two basic "routes" to pursuasion. The central route is taken when people carefully ponder the content and logic of persuasive messages. The peripheral route is taken when persuasion depends on nonmessage factors, such as the attractiveness and credibility of the source, or on conditioned emotional responses. The central route to persuasion leads to more enduring attitude change than the peripheral route.
Conformity
When people yeild to real or imagined social pressure.
Obedience
A form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority.
Bystander Effect
People are less likely to provide needed help when they are in groups than when they are alone.
Social Loafing
A reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when they work by themselves.
Group Polarization
Occurs when group discussion strengthens a groups' dominant point of view and produces a shift toward a more extreme decision in that direction.
Groupthink
Occurs when members of a cohesive (organized) group emphasize concurrence (agreement) at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at a decision.
Group Cohesiveness
The strength of the liking relationships linking group members to each other and to the group itself.
Prejudice
A negative attitude held toward members of a group.
Discrimination
Behaving differently, usually unfairly, toward the members of a group.
Foot-in-the-door-Technique
Getting people to agree to a small request to increase the chances that they will agree to a larger request later. EX/ Groups seeking donations often ask people to simply sign a petition first.
Reciprocity Norm
The rule that we should pay back in kind what we receive from others. EX/ Give something of minimal value in the hopes of getting far more in return.
Lowball Technique
Getting someone to commit to a seemingly attractive proposition before its hidden costs are revealed.