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62 Cards in this Set

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The scientific study of the human mind and behavior
Psychology
What is the Scientific Approach of Psychology?
1. Describe
2. Predict
3. Understand
4. Modify
What were the two approaches of the Greeks to understanding humans/human behavior?
1. Philosophy
2. Physiology
Hippocrates was the first to:
1. use empirical observations
2. place the mind as residing in the brain
3. suggest taht mental illness was a physiological disorder and not the result of the wrath or caprice of the gods
Who was a rationalist and believed in the primacy of senses?
Plato
Who was an empiricist and believed in the primacy of data?
Aristotle
The real world is abstract; we know it through reason.
Rationalism
Knowledge is gained through careful observation; we only know what our senses tell us.
Empiricism
This was the first major school of thought in psychology. This school used the method of introspection and believed that the point of psychology should be to break down consciousness into elementary states and figure out how they recombined to make consciousness.
Structuralism
Whilhelm Wudnt and Titchener were...
Structuralists
This school of thought opposed the functionalists and emphasized that humans are active processors of information and in choosing their behaviors. They questioned, "Why do people do what they do?"
Functionalism
William James was a...
Functionalist/Pragmatist
An outgrowth of functionalism; was even more specific about this; arguing for the importance of motivation and the function of consciousness.
Pragmatism
This perspective was interested in how bodily events affect behavior, feelings, and thought.
Biological Perspective
Major topics of study in the Biological perspective:
1. the nervous system
2. hormones
3. brain chemistry
4. heredity
5. evolutionary influences
This perspective was concerned with how the environment and experience affect a person's (or nonhuman animal's) actions.
Learning Perspective
Behavioral Psychology and Social Cognitive Psychology fall under this perspective.
Learning Perspective
Evolutionary psychology falls under this perspective
Biological Perspective
Behavioral Psychology focused on:
environmental determinants of observable behavior
Social Cognitive Psychology focuses on
environmental influences; observation and imitation; beliefs and values
This perspective emphasizes what goes on in people's heads.
Cognitive Perspective
This perspective focused on:
1. thinking
2. memory
3. language
4. problem solving
5. perceptions
This perspective focuses on social and cultural forces outside of the individual.
Sociocultural Perspective
Social Psychology and Cultural Psychology fall under this perspective.
Sociocultural Perspective
Social Psychology focuses on:
1. social rules and roles
2. groups
3. relationships
Culutural Psycholgoy focuses on:
1. culutural norms
2. values
3. expectations
Evidence relying or derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement.
Empirical Evidence
Methods that yield descriptions of behavior but not necessarily causal explanations.
Descriptive Statistics
This type of statistics uses mean, median, mode, and measures of central tendency.
Descriptive Statistics
Statistical procedures that allow researchers to draw inferences about how statistically meaningful a study's results are.
Inferential Statistics
This type of statistics uses Correlational studies.
Inferential Statistics
A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated.
Case Study
A study in which the researcher carefully and systematically observes and records behavior without interfering with the behavior; naturalistic or laboratory.
Observational Studies
Observing in a natural/normal social environment.
Naturalistic Observation
Observations in a laboratory setting.
Laboratory Observation
AN organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships.
Theory
A statement that attempts to predict or to account for a set of phenomena; specify relationships among events or variables and are empirically tested.
Hypothesis
A precise definition of a term in a hypothesis, which specifies the operations for observing and measuring the process or phenomenon being defined.
Operational Definition
A group of subjects, selected from a population for study, which matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex.
Representative Sample
A variable that the experimenter manipulates
Independent Variable
A variable that an experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of the independent variable.
Dependent Variable
A variable that an experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of the independent variable.
Dependent Variable
The process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related response.
Classical Conditioning
The classical conditioning term for a stimulus that elicts a reflexive response in the absence of learning.
Unconditioned Stimulus
A reflexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning.
Unconditioned Response
The classical conditioning term for a stimulus that elicts a reflexive response in the absence of learning.
Unconditioned Stimulus
The process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related response.
Classical Conditioning
The classical conditioning term for a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence of learning.
Unconditioned Stimulus
A reflexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning.
Unconditioned Response
An initally neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus
A response that is eliicited by a conditioned stimulus; it occurs after the conditioned stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned Response
The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
Extinction
After conditioning, the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning; when a stimulus that resembles teh CS elicits the CR.
Stimulus Generalization
The tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli; when a stimulus similar to the CS fails to evoke the CR.
Stimulus Discrimination
A behaviorist who studed salivation of dogs.
Pavlov
Emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as a determinant of behavior.
Behaviorism
Noticed that some associations are more readily made/require fewer trials; taste and smell associate quicker with poison and light/noise associate quicker with shock.
Garcia
A mode of classical conditioning where the CS and CR are closely related; the CS happens before and during the UCS.
Delayed Conditioning (Overlap)
Mode of classical conditioning where the CS is presented; there is a gap in time; the UCS is presented; then the CR occurs.
Trace Conditioning
Associating time with a feeling; mood improving as a certain time approaches.
Temporal Conditioning
An ineffective mode of conditioning where the CS comes before the UCS.
Backward Conditioning
An ineffective mode of conditioning where the CS and the UCS are presented at the same time.
Simultaneous Conditioning