Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/39

Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
counterconditioning
In classical conditioning, the process of pairing a conditioned stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned response.
extinction
The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus; in operant conditioning, it occurs when a response is no longer followed by a reinforcer
higher-order conditioning
In classical conditioning, a procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association with an already established conditioned stimulus
stimulus generalization
After conditioning, the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus that resembles the conditioned stimulus elicits the conditioned response; in operant conditioning, the tendency for a response that has been reinforced (or punished) in the presence of one stimulus to occur (or be suppressed) in the presence of other, similar stimuli
classical conditioning
The process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related response; also called Pavlovian and respondent conditioning.
conditioned response (CR)
The classical conditioning term for a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus; occurs after the conditioned stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus
PAVLOV
Physiologist who discovered classical conditioning - studied saliva of dog during digestion
John Watson
he stated that responding to crying was not a good idea because it produces a reward for crying. Thus, the baby learns to cry anytime it wants to see mom or dad, not when it actually is in need.
spontaneous recovery
The reappearance of the conditioned response after extinction.
B. F. Skinner
Skinner called the basic process of instrumental conditining operant conditining. In operant conditioning the organism is free to respond at any time, and conditioning is measured by the rate of responding.
Thorndike
He did the cat in a box experiment. It used the same strategy to get out of the box for the fish reward. The response is getting out of the box, the stimulus is the fish.
operant conditioning
The process by which a response becomes more or less likely to occur, depending on its consequences
reinforcement
The process by which a stimulus or event strengthens or increases the probability of the response that it follows
positive reinforcement
A reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the presentation of, or increase in intensity of, a reinforcing stimulus; as a result, the response becomes stronger or more likely to occur
secondary reinforcement
something that can be used to get something for survival
punishment
The process by which a stimulus or event weakens or reduces the probability of the response that it follows
Skinner Box
A box with a lever inside which drops a food pellet or water as a reward to the stimulus of the rat pressing the levedemonstrating
discriminative stimulus
A stimulus that signals when a particular response is likely to be followed by a certain type of consequence
Discriminative stimulus
Stimulus whose presence signals an individual to respond because he or she has learned previously that its presence leads to reinforcing consequences.
continuous reinforcement
A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is always reinforced
variable-interval (VI) schedule
An intermittent schedule of reinforcement in which a reinforcer is delivered for a response made after a variable period of time has elapsed since the last reinforcer.
variable-ratio (VR) schedule
An intermittent schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement occurs after a variable number of responses
fixed-ratio (FR) schedule
An intermittent schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement occurs only after a fixed number of responses.
intermittent (partial) schedule of reinforcement
A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is sometimes but not always reinforced
Fixed-interval schedules in operant conditioning
a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
shaping
reinforcing succevily closer responses to the desired response step by step
successive approximations
In the operant conditioning procedure of shaping, behaviors that are ordered in terms of increasing similarity or closeness to the desired response
chaining
a startegy to teach the stps of skills that have been task analed, eith frist stp first (forward) or last step first (backward)
instinctive drift
The tendency of an organism to revert to an instinctive behavior over time; it can interfere with learning
behavior modification
The application of conditioning techniques to teach new responses or to reduce or eliminate maladaptive or problematic behavior
determinism
a persistent philosophy that people's actions and all other events are determined, or set in motion, by forces over which human beings have no control
Free will
In the free will/determinism debate the position that at least some humans have a genuine capacity for self-determined choice.
determinism
a persistent philosophy that people's actions and all other events are determined, or set in motion, by forces over which human beings have no control
intrinsic reinforcers
Reinforcers that are inherently related to the activity being reinforced, such as enjoyment of the task and the satisfaction of accomplishment
social cognitive thoery
people aquire new knowledge and behavior by observing other people and event
observational learning
A learning process in which an individual learns new responses by observing the behavior of another (a model) rather than through direct experience
Albert Bandura
Found that children who saw aggression showed that aggression in play.
latent learning
A form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response; it occurs without obvious reinforcement
Edward Tolman
Performance = Expectation X Value
Expectancy-Value Theory
ppl motivated by goals they're likely to meet.