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108 Cards in this Set

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circadian rhythm
the biological clock; regularly bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle
When is thinking the sharpest and memory most accurate?
When people are at their daily peak in circadian arousal.
jet jag
a transcontinental flight disrupts our circadian rhythm because we are awake when are body is wanting to sleep; bright light helps to reset our circadian rhythm
REM sleep
rapid eye movement sleep, a reoccuring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also know as paradoxial sleep because the muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active
alpha wave
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
sleep
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness- as distinct from un consciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation
hallucinations
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence o fan external visual stimulus
sleep spindles
bursts of rapid, rhythmic brainwave activity
delta waves
the large, slow brain waves associates with deep sleep
THe sleep cycle repeats it self how often?
every 90 minutes
Why do we sleep?
Sleep suits our ecological niche and helps us recuperate.
insomnia
reoccuring problems in falling or staying asleep
narcolepsy
a sleep disorder characterized by the uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times
sleep apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings
night terrors
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
Our body temperature seems to rise and fall in sync with a biological clock, which is referred to as
the circadian rhythm
Stage 1 sleep is a twilight zone of light sleep. During stage 1 sleep, a person is most likely to experience
hallucinations
In the deepest stage of sleep-surprisingly the stage when people sleep walk-the brain emits large, slow delta waves. This is called
Stage 4
An electroencephalograph shows that during sleep we pass through a cycle of five stages, each with characteristic brain waves. As the night processes, the REM stage
becomes progressively longer
Various theories have been proposed too explain why we need sleep. They are:
1. Sleep has survival value.
2. Sleep helps us recuperate.
3. Sleep plays a role in the growth process.
Dream
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.
manifest content
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream
latent content
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream. Freud believed that a dream's latent content functions as a safety valve
activation-synthesis theory
dreams spring from the mind's relentless effort to make sense of unrelated visual bursts, which are given thier emotional tone by the limbic system
REM rebound
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation; created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep
According to Freud, dreams are key to the understanding of our inner conflicts. In interpreting dreams, Freud was most interested in their
latent content, or symmbolic meaning
Soem theories of dreaming pose that dreams serve a physiological purpose. One such theory suggests that dreams
are the brain's attempt to make sense of random neural activity
THe tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation is referred to as
REM rebound
hypnosis
a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
posthypnotic amnesia
supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis; induced by the hypnotist's suggestion
dissociation
a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
hidden observer
a hypnotized subject's awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis
Hypnosis is a spcial interaction in which a hypnotist suggests to a subject that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur. Subjects who are hypnotizable and will carry out a hypnotic suggestion usually
are fantasy-prone
Although experts differ in their understandings of hypnosis, m ost agree that hypnosis can be effectively used to
relieve pain
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditional stimulus begins to produce a responce that anticipates and prepares for the unconditional stimulus
unconditional response
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occuring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth
conditioned response
in classical conditioning, the the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
unconditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response
conditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, an orginally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
extinction
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimiulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus
spontaneous recovery
the reapperance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response
generalization
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
discrimination
in classical, conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
Learning is defined as "a relatively permenant change in behavior due to
experience with the environment"
Working with digs, Pavlov paired a tone or other neural stimulus with food in the mouth. The dogs then came to salivate when presented with the neural stimulus alone. Salivation in response to food in the mouth occurs naturally in dogs, without conditioning; food us therefore the unconditioned stimulus. Salivation in response to a tone must be learned; the tone is therefore a
conditioned response
Dogs can learn to respond to one kind of stimulus and not to another-for example, to salivate at the sight of a circle but not a square. Distinguishing between a CS and an irrelevent stimulus is
discrimination
Early behaviorists believed that for conditioning to occur, the unconditioned stimulus must immediately follow the conditioned stimulus. ____________ demonstrated this was not always so.
taste-aversion studies
Research showed that rats developed aversions to certain tastes but not to sights or sounds, thus supporting
the principle that natural aselection favors traits that aid survival
The small child was classically conditioned to fear a white rat. After the rat was paired with a frieghtening noise, the child cried when the rat was presented even without the noise. The child later showed fear in response to a rabbit, dog, and a sealskin coat. The child's fear of objects resembling the rat illustrates
generalization of the conditioned response
Operant conditioning
a type oflearning in which behavior is strenghthened if followed by reinforement of diminished if followed by punishment
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
operant behavior
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
operant behavior
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
shaping
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers quide behavior toward closer and closer aproximations of a desired goal
reinforcer
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
positive reinforcer
a tangible reward that strengths a reponse by presenting a timulus after a response. It may be a praise or attention
negative reinforcement
strengthns a response by reducing or removing an aversive stimulus
Primary reinforcers
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
Conditioned reinforcer (secondary)
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
partial reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
fixed-ratio schedules
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
Variable-ratio schedules
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
Fixed-interval schedules
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
Variable-interval schedules
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
punishment
an event that decreases the behavior that follows
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
memory
the persistence of learning over time and through the storage and retrival of information
flashbulb memories
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
encoding
the processing of information into the memory system-for example, by extracting meaning
storage
the retention of encoded information over time
retrieval
the process of getting information out of memory storage
sensory memory
the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items breifly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the imformation is stored or forgotten
long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
working memory
a concept of memory similar to short-term memory but focusing more on the processing of briefly stored information
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
rehearsal
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
spacing effect
the tendency for distributing study or practice to yield better better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
serial position effect
our tendency to recall the last and the first items in a list better those in the middle
imagery
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
mnemonics
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organzational devices
social influence theory
the subject is so caught up in the hypnotized role that they ignor the oder(when smelling ammonia)
chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
Human memory involves information processing. We take information in, retain it, and later get it back out. In pyscological terms, these steps are
encoding, storage and retrival
Short-term memory is an intermediate stage of memory where information is held before it is stored or forgotten. The newer concept of workign memory
clarifies the idea of short-term memory by focusing on behind-the-scenes information processing
Rehearsal is the conscious repetition of information a person wants to remember, either in short-term or long-term. Rehearsal is part of
effortful processing
When people are showed a list of words and are immediately tested, they tend to recall the first and last items on the list more readily than those in the middle. When people are retested after a delay, they are most likely to recall
the first items on the list
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
implicit memory
retention without conscious recollection of skills and disposition
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
hippocampus
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explict memories for storage
recall
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
recognition
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
relearning
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
priming
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
déjà vu
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before". Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
state-dependent memory
what we learn in one state is sometimes more easily recalled when we are again in the same state, a subtle phenomenon
mood-congruent
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
mood-congruent
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of bnew learning on the recall of old information
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
source misattribution
attributing to the wrong source an event that we have experienced, heard about, or imagined. Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories