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148 Cards in this Set

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Define PSYCHOLOGY:
Study of BEHAVIOR and MENTAL PROCESSES and how they're affected by an organism's PHYSICAL, MENTAL, and ENVIRONMENTAL STATES.
What were Psychology's Early Beginnings:
TBD
Name the FIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES:
1. Biological, 2. Learning/Behaviorism, 3. Cognitive, 4. Psychodynamic, 5. Sociocultural.
The BIOLOGICAL perspective:
Emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, and problem solving.
Define the BEHAVIORISM/LEARNING perspective:
Emphasizes mental process in PERCEPTION, MEMORY, LANGUAGE, PROBLEM SOLVING.
Define the COGNITIVE perspective:
Emphasizes MENTAL PROCESSES in PERCEPTION, MEMORY, LANGUAGE, PROBLEM SOLVING.
Define the PSYCHODYNAMIC perspective:
Emphasizes UNCONSCIOUS DYNAMICS within the individual - Inner forces, conflicts or movement of INSTINCTUAL ENERGY.
Define the SOCIOCULTURAL perspective:
Emphasizes SOCIAL and CULTURAL influences on behavior.
Name the FIVE TYPES OF PSYCHOLOGISTS:
1. Experimental, 2. Educational, 3. Developmental, 4. Industrial/Organizational, 5. Psychometric.
The EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGISTS does:
Conducts lab studies of LEARNING, MOTIVATION, EMOTION, SENSATION AND PERCEPTION, PHYSIOLOGY, and COGNITION.
The EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST does:
Studies psychological principles that EXPLAIN LEARNING and search for ways to IMPROVE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS.
The DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGIST does:
Studies how people CHANGE and GROW OVER TIME - physically, mentally, and socially.
The INDUSTRIAL/ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST does:
Studies BEHAVIORS IN THE WORKPLACE.
What does the PSYCHOMETRIC PSYCHOLOGIST do:
DESIGNS and EVALUATES TESTS of MENTAL ABILITIES, APTITUDES, INTERESTS, and PERSONALITY.
Define THEORY:
A system of ASSUMPTIONS and PRINCIPLES that purports to explain A PHENOMENA and their INTERRELATIONSHIPS.
Define HYPOTHESIS:
A STATEMENT that attempts to PREDICT or to ACCOUNT for a set of PHENOMENA.
What is CASE STUDY:
A detailed DESCRIPTION of a PARTICULAR INDIVIDUAL based on OBSERVATION and formal PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING.
Define THEORY:
A system of ASSUMPTIONS and PRINCIPLES that purports to explain A PHENOMENA and their INTERRELATIONSHIPS.
What is a SURVEY?
INFORMATION GATHERED by asking people DIRECTLY about their OPINIONS, EXPERIENCES and ATTITUDES.
Define THEORY:
A system of ASSUMPTIONS and PRINCIPLES that purports to explain A PHENOMENA and their INTERRELATIONSHIPS.
What is a REPRESNTATIVE SAMPLE?
GROUPS of SUBJECTS that ACCURATELY REPRESENT the LARGER POPULATION.
RELIABILITY is?
The CONSISTENCY of SCORES derived from a test, from ONE TIME to ANOTHER.
VALIDITY is:
The ABILITY of a TEST to MEASURE what is was DESIGNED TO MEASURE.
Define NATUARLISTIC OBSERVATION:
OBSERVATION of BEHAVIOR as it OCCURS in the NATURAL ENVIRONMENT.
What is a NEGATIVE CORRELATION?
An ASSOCIATION between INCREASES in one variable in DECREASES in another.
What is a POSITIVE CORRELATION?
An association between INCREASES in one variable and INCREASES in ANOTHER.
What is an EXPERIMENT?
A CONTROLLED TEST of a HYPOTHESIS in which the researcher MANIPULATES one variable to discover ITS EFFECT on ANOTHER.
What is a DOUBLE-BLIND STUDY?
An experiment in which NEITHER the SUBJECTS NOR the INDIVIDUALS running the study know which subjects are in the CONTROL GROUP and which are in the EXPERIMENTAL GROUP until AFTER the results are TALLIED.
Define EXPERIMENTAL CONDITION:
TBD
Define CONTROLLED CONDITION:
A TESTING situation where SUBJECTS as NUMBERS and putting those with EVEN numbers ONE GROUP and those with ODD NUMBERS in another.
Define INDPENDENT VARIABLE:
A VARIABLE that an EXPERIMENTER MANIPULATES.
Define DEPENDENT VARIABLE:
A VARIABLE that an experimenter PREDICTS will be affected by MANIPULATIONS of the INDEPENDENT VARIABLE.
Define the STRUCTURE OF A NEURON:
DENDRITES, CELL BODY, AXON or (Dogs Can Bark Always) DCBA
What is the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM?
The portion of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord. Responsible for receiving, processing, interpreting adn storing of sensory information.
What is the SOMANTIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?
The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that connects to sensory receptors and to skeletal muscles.
What is the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?
The subdivision of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM that mobilizes bodily resources and INCREASES the the output of ENERGY during STRESS and EMOTION.
What is the PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?
The subdivision of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM that operates during RELAXED states and conserves energy.
What is the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?
The subdivision of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM that mobilizes bodily resources and INCREASES the the output of ENERGY during STRESS and EMOTION.
What are the TYPES of NEUROTRANSMITTERS?
Serotonin, Dopamine, Acetylcholine, Norepinerhrine, GABA, Glutamate.
What is a PET SCAN?
POSITION-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY. A method for analyzing biochemical activity in the brain.
What is an MRI?
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, a method for studying body and brain tissue.
What is an EEG?
A recording of NEURAL ACTIVITY detected by ELECTRODES.
What is the MEDULLA?
A structure in the brain stem responsible for certain automatic functions including BREATHING and HEART RATE.
What are PONS?
A structure in the brain at the TOP of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the MEDULLA and PONS.
What is the RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM?
A defense network of neurons found in the core of the brain stem. It arouses the cortex and screens incoming information.
What is the CEREBELLUM?
A dense network of neurons found in the core of the brain stem; it arouses the cortex and screens incoming information.
What is the THALAMUS?
The BUSY TRAFFIC OFFICER of the brain. Relays sensory messages to the CEREBRAL CORTEX.
What is the AMYGDALA?
A brain structure involved in the arousal and regulation of emotion and the initial emotional response to sensory information.
What is the HYPOTHALAMUS?
A brain structure residing under the THALAMUS that is involved in emotions and drives vital to survival, such as FEAR, HUNGER, THIRST, and REPRODUCTION.
What is the HIPPOCAMUS?
A brain structure involved in the STORAGE OF NEW INFORMATION IN MEMORY.
What is the CERBRAL CORTEX?
A collection of several thin layers of cells covering the cerebrum; responsible for higher mental functions.
What is the FRONTAL LOBE?
Movement, short-term memory, planning, setting goals, creative thinking, initiative, social judgment, rational decision making, speech production.
What is the PARIETAL LOBE?
Is responsible for processing PRESSURE, PAIN, TOUCH, TEMPERATURE.
What is the OCCIPITAL LOBE responsible for?
Visual Processing.
What is the TEMPORAL LOBE responsible for?
Memory, perception, emotion, hearing, language, comprehension.
What is the CORPUS CALLOSUM?
The bundles of nerve fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres.
Left vs Right Hemispheric Specialization?
TBD
What is LEARNING?
Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a part of training or experience.
Define BEHAVIORISM:
An approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as a determinant of behavior.
UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE (UR):
A reflexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning.
UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS:
A stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence of learning.
CONDTIONED RESPONSE;
Response elicited by a conditioned stimulus occurring after the conditioned stimulus si associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
CONDITIONED STIMULUS:
Term for an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
EXTINCTION:
The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response. When the CS is no longer paired with the US.
SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY:
The reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction.
SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY:
The reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction.
STIMULUS GENERALIZATION:
After conditioning, the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning.
STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION:
The tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli.
SHAPING:
An operant conditioning procedure in which successive approximations or a desired response are reinforced.
POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT?
A stimulus that has acquired punishing properties through associations with other punisher.
NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT:
A reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the removal, delay, or decrease in intensity of an unpleasant stimulus.
INTRINSIC REINFORCER:
Reinforcers that are inherently related to the activity being reinforced.
Extrinsic Reinforcer:
Reinforcers that are not inherently related to the activity being reinforced.
CONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT:
A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is always reinforced.
PARTIAL REINFORCER:
A stimulus that has acquired punishing properties through association with other punishers.
FIXED-RATIO PERSPECTIVE:
A reinforcer is delivered for the first response made after a fixed period of time has elapsed since the last reinforcer.
VARIABLE-INTERVAL SCHEDULES:
Reinforcement occurs AFTER a variable number of responses.
BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION:
The application of conditioning techniques to teach new responses or to reduce or eliminate maladaptive or problematic behavior.
OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING:
A process in which an individual learns new responses by observing the behavior of another rather than through direct experience.
RECONSTRUCTIVE MEMORY:
aka CONFABULATION, Confusion of an event that happened to someone else with one that happened to you, or a belief that you remember something when it never actually happened.
FLASHBULB MEMORY:
Remembering in vivid detail an unusual, shocking or tragic event as it is frozen in time in the memory.
IMPLICIT MEMORY:
Unconscious retention in memory, as evidenced by the affect of a previous experience.
EXPLICIT MEMORY:
Conscious, intentional recollection of an event or an item of information.
SENSORY MEMORY:
A memory system that momentarily preserves extremely accurate images of sensory information.
SHORT-TERM MEMORY?
STM - A limited-capacity memory system involved in the retention of information for brief periods. Storage repsoitory from long to temp use.
LONG-TERM MEMORY:
LTM - Memory system involved in the long-term storage of information.
MAINTENACE REHERSAL:
Rote Repetition of material in order to maintain its availability in memory.
ELABORATIVE REHERSAL:
Association of new information with already stored knowledge and analysis of the new information to make it memorable.
SERIAL POSITION EFFECT:
The tendency for recall of the first and last items on a list to surpass recall of items in teh middle of the list.
MNEMONICS:
Strategies and tricks for improving memory.
RECALL:
The ability to retrieve and reproduce from memory previously encountered material.
RECOGNITION:
The ability to retrieve and reproduce from memory previously encountered material.
RELEARNING METHOD:
A method for measuring retention that compares the time required to relearn material with the time used in the initial learning of the material.
DECAY THEORY:
The theory that information in memory eventually disappears if it is not accessed, more so to STM than LTM.
PROACATIVE INTERFERENCE:
Forgetting that occurs when previously stored material interferes with the ability to remember similar, more recently learned material.
RETROACTIVE INTERFERENCE:
Forgetting that occurs when recently learned material interferes with the ability to remember similar material stored previously.
REPRESSION:
The moving of threatening or upsetting information into the unconscious.
STATE-DEPENDENT MEMORY:
The tendency to remember something when the rememberer is in the same physical or mental state as during the original learning experience.
TRAIT:
A characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling.
Behaviorists Perspective on Personality:
TBD
Allport's Trait Theory:
TBD
TEMPERMENT:
Physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways; they are present in infancy and are assumed to be innate.
FREUD'S PSYCHOANLYTIC PERSPECTIVE ON PERSONALITY.
tbd
ID:
The part of personality containing inherited psychic energy, particulary sexual and aggressive instincts.
EGO:
The part of personality that represents reasons, good sense, adn rational self-control.
SUPEREGO:
The part of the personality that represents conscience, morality and social standards.
DEFENSE MECHANISMS:
Methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering consciousness.
ORAL STAGE:
The first year of life, when babies experience the world through their mouths.
ANAL STAGE:
Period when toilet training and control of bodily wastes are the key issues. They may become ANAL RETENTIVE, holding everything in, or ANAL EXPULSIVE, when they are messy and disorganized.
PHALLIC (OEDIPAL) STAGE:
Lasts from ages 3 to 5 or 6, The child unconsciously wishes to possess the parent of the other sex and get rid of the parent of the same sex.
HUMANIST AND EXISTENTIAL PERSPECTIVES ON PERSONALITY
TBD
CARL ROGER'S THEORY: SELF-ACTUALIZATION:
TBD
UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD:
To Carl Rogers, love or support given to another person with no conditions attached.
DSM-IV:
The standard reference manual used to diagnose all mental disorders. THE DSM-IV is the fourth edition.
GENERAL ANXIETY DISORDER:
A continuous state of anxiety marked by feelings of worry and dread, apprehension, difficulties in concentration, and signs of motor tension.
PHOBIA:
An exaggerated, unrealistic fear of a specific situation, activity, or object.
OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER:
OCD - An anxiety disorder in which a person feels trapped in repetitive, persistent thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive, ritualized behaviors (compulsions) designed to reduce anxiety.
MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER:
A mood disorder involving disturbances in emotion (excessive sadness), behavior (loss of interest in one's usual activities), cognition (thoughts of hopelessness), and body function (fatigue adn loss of appetite.)
BIPOLAR DISORDER:
A mood disorder in which episodes of both depression and mania (excessive euphoria) occur.
DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER:
A controversial marked by the apparent appearance within one person of two or more distinct personalities, each with its own name and traits.
SCHIZOPHRENIA:
A psychotic disorder marked by positive symptoms,e.g., delusions, hallucinations, disorganized or incoherent speech, and inappropriate behavior) and negative symptoms, e.g. emotional flatness and loss of motivation.
ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER:
A disorder characterized by antisocial behavior such as lying, stealing, manipulating others, and sometimes violence. and a lack of guilt, shame and empathy.
NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY DISORDER:
A disorder characterized by an exaggerated sense of self-importance and self-absorption.
FREE-ASSOCIATION:
The process of saying freely whatever comes to mind in connection with dreams, memories, fantasies, or conflicts.
TRANSFERENCE:
A critical process in which the client transfers unconscious emotions or reactions, such as emotional feelings about his or her parents, onto the therapist.
COUNTERCONDITIONING:
A conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with some other stimulus that elicits a response incompatible with the unwanted response.
SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION:
A step-by-step process of desensitizing a client to a feared object or experience, by gradually introducing the client to the fear until the client is comfortable.
EXISTENTIAL THERAPY:
Helps clients explore the meaning of existence and face the great questions of life, such as death, freedom, free will, alienation, and loneliness.
FAMILY THERAPY:
An approach in doing therapy with individuals of families by examining how each member forms part of a larger, interacting system.
RATIONAL EMOTIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY:
A form of cognitive therapy devised by Albert Ellis, designed to challenge the client's unrealistic or irrational thoughts.
ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS:
Drugs used primarily in the treatment of mood disorders, especially depression and anxiety.
ANXIETY DRUGS:
Drugs used to alleviate symptoms of anxiety, include Xanax, etc.
ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS:
Drugs used primarily in the treatment of mood disorders, especially depression and anxiety.
LITHIUM CARBONATE:
A frequently used drug form people suffering from Bipolar Disorder.
ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY:
A procedure used in cases of prolonged and severe major depression, in which brief brain seizure is induced.
SUCCESSFUL THERAPY TRAITS:
TBD
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY:
TBD
FUNDAMENTAL ATTIBUTION ERROR:
The tendency, in explaining other people's behavior, to overestimate personality factors and underestimate the influence of the situation.
COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY:
A state of tension that occurs when a person simultaneously holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent, or when a person's belief is incongruent with his/her behavior.
CONFORMITY - ASCH'S STUDY:
TBD
OBEDIENCE - MILGRAM'S STUDY
TBD
GROUPTHINK:
In close-knit groups, the tendency for all members to think alike for the sake of harmony and to suppress disagreement.
JUST-WORLD HYPOTHESIS:
The notion that many people need to believe that the world is fair and that justice is served; that bad people are punished and good people are rewarded.
BYSTANDER EFFECT:
TBD
DEINDIVIDUALIZATION:
In groups or crowds, the loss of awareness of one's own individuality.
PREJUDICE:
An extreme dislike or hatred for a particular person or group of persons.
STEREOTYPE:
A summary impression of a group, in which a person believes that all members of the group share a common trait or traits.
STEREOTYPE:
A summary impression of a group, in which a person believes that all members of the group share a common trait or traits.