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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
medical model
The medical model proposes that it is useful
to think of abnormal behavior as a disease.
Diagnosis involves distinguishing one illness
from another.
Etiology refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness.
epidemiology—the study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population.
prevalence refers to the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time period
prevalence of psychological disorders
the most
common types of psychological disorders are (1) substance
(alcohol and drugs) use disorders, (2) anxiety
disorders, and (3) mood disorders.
are a class of disorders marked by feelings of excesexcessive
apprehension and anxiety
There are four principal
types of anxiety disorders
generalized anxiety disorder,
phobic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder,
and panic disorder.
generalized anxiety disorder
The generalized anxiety disorder is marked by a
chronic high level of anxiety that is not tied to any
speci c threat.
A phobic disorder
A phobic disorder is marked
by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or
situation that presents no realistic danger
A panic disorder
A A panic disorder is characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur
suddenly and unexpectedly is characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur
suddenly and unexpectedly
Agoraphobia is a fear of going out to public places
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is marked by
persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted
thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless
rituals (compulsions).
are actions that one feels forced to carry out
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that carry
signals from one neuron to another
disorders are a class of disorders in which
people lose contact with portions of their consciousness
or memory, resulting in disruptions in their
sense of identity.
Dissociative amnesia
Dissociative amnesia is a sudden loss of memory for important
personal information that is too extensive
to be due to normal forgetting.
dissociative fugue
people lose their memory for their sense of personal identity.
Dissociative identity disorder (DID)
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) involves the
coexistence in one person of two or more largely
complete, and usually very different, personalities
Mood disorders
Mood disorders are a class of disorders
marked by emotional disturbances that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual,social, and thought processes.
unipolar disorders
with unipolar disorders experience emotional extremes at
just one end of the mood continuum—depression
bipolar disorders
with bipolar disorders experience emotional extremes at
both ends of the mood continuum, going through periods
of both depression and mania (excitement and elation).
Schizophrenic disorders
Schizophrenic disorders are a class of disorders
marked by disturbances in thought that spill over to
affect perceptual, social, and emotional processes.
paranoid schizophrenia
paranoid schizophrenia is dominated
by delusions of persecution, along with delusions
of grandeur.
Catatonic schizophrenia
Catatonic schizophrenia is marked by striking motor
disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to
random motor activity.
disorganized schizophrenia
disorganized schizophrenia, a particularly severe
deterioration of adaptive behavior is seen.
undifferentiated schizophrenia
undifferentiated schizophrenia, which is
marked by idiosyncratic mixtures of schizophrenic
Eating disorders
Eating disorders are severe disturbances in eating
behavior characterized by preoccupation with
weight and unhealthy efforts to control weight.
Anorexia nervosa
Anorexia nervosa involves intense fear of gaining
weight, disturbed body image, refusal to maintain
normal weight, and dangerous measures to lose
Bulimia nervosa
Bulimia nervosa involves habitually engaging in
out-of-control overeating followed by unhealthy
compensatory efforts, such as self-induced vomiting,
fasting, abuse of laxatives and diuretics, and
excessive exercise.
Binge-eating disorder
Binge-eating disorder involves distress-inducing eating
binges that are not accompanied by the purging,
fasting, and excessive exercise seen in bulimia.