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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Psychodynamic Therapies
- Human behavior is motivated largely by unconscious processes
- Early development has a profound effect on adult funcitoning
- universal principles explain personality development and behavior
- insight into unconscious processes is a key component of psychotherapy.
include adler's individual psychology, jung's analyitical psychotherapy, and the therapeutic object-relations theorists
Freadian pscyhoanalysis
pessimistic, dterministic, mechanistic, and reductionistic. According to freud, human beings are determined by irrational forces, unconscious motivations, biological and instinctual needs and drives, and pscyhosexual events that occurred during the first five years of life.
The two separate, but interraleated parts of Freuds personality theory
Structural (drive) theory - Id, Ego, and the superego.
Developmental theory emphasized the sexual drives of the id an dproposes that an indiviudal's personality is formed during childhood as the result of certain experiences that occur during five predtermined psychosexual stages of development.
Id - operates on the basis of the pleasure principle and seeks immediate gratification of its instictual drives nad needs in ordder to avoid tension
Ego - operates on teh basis the othe reality principle - defers gratification of the id.
Superego- emerges when a child is between four and five and represents an internalization of society's values and standards as conveyed to the child by parents - permentaly block id.
Freuds developmental theory
libido - sexual energy- focused on a differnt part of the body - oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital.
Essential component of freud's personalty theory
Anxiety - unpleasent feeling linked with excitment of the autonomic nervious system and proposed that its funciton is to alert the ego to impending internal or external ththreats.
Defense Mechanism.
Operate on an unconscious level and they seve to deny or distort reality.
Can be sonsidered adaptive but they can lead to dysfuncitonal behavior if egoss havitual way of dealing with danger
most basic defense mechanism. underlies all other efense mechanisms and occurs when the ids drives and needs are excluded from conscious awareness
Reaction Formation
avoiding an anxieyt-evoking instinct by expressing its opposite
Freudians view of maladaptive behavior
pscyhopathology stems from unconscious, unresolved conflict that occurred during childhood.
Freudian therapy goals and techniquess
to reduce or eliminate pathological symptoms by bringing the unconscious into conscious awarness and integrating previously repressed material into the personality. Analysis the the primpry technique - Free associations, dreams, resistances, and transferences. all behavior is meaningful
Confrontation - Freudian
making statments that help the client see his or her behavior in a new way
Clarification - Freudian
involves restating the client's remarks and feelings in clearer terms
Interpretation - Freudian
are less liekly to elicit anxiety and resistance and are more effective when address moteives and conflicts clos to a clients consciousness than when they relate to material buried deep in unconscious
is teh emtional release resulting from the recall of unconscios material
Working through - freudian
the final and longest stage in pscyanalysis, allows the client to gradually assimilate new insights into his or her personality
Current Status of Freudian
Replace Freud's emphasis on interpretatin and insight with an emphasis on the therapist- patient relatioship. Transferrance and countertransferance is not just distorted respos to patient/therapist - important contributor
Adler's Individual Psycholgy disagreed with Freud on...
the role of unconscious instinctual (especially sexual) forces in the development of personality and his lack of attention to social factors.
Focused more on behavior motivated by a person's future goals rather than determined by past events.
Adler's Personality Theory
Inferiorty feelings, striving for superiority, style of life, and social interest
Inferiority feelings - Adler
DDevelop during childhood as the result of real or percieved biological, psychological, or social weaknesses.
Style of Life - Adler
The specific ways a person chooses to compensate for inferiority and to achieve superiority determine his or her style of life, which unifies the various aspects of the personality.
Social Interest - Adler
distinguished between a healthy and unhealthy (mistaken) style of life, and he proposed that social interst is the primary charateristeic that differentiaties the two.
Healthy - marked by goals that reflect optimism and confidence and entail refelcting
self-centeredness goals reflecting competitivemness, and striving for personal power.
Adler's veiw of Maladaptive Behavior
mental disorder srepresent a mistaken style of life, which is characterized by maladaptive attempts to compensate for feelings of inferiority, a preocupation with achieving personal power, and a lack of social interest.
Adler - therapy goals and techniques
establishing a colaaborative relationship with the client, helping the client identify and understand his style of life and its consequences, and reorienting the client's beliefs and goals so that they support a more adaptive lifestyle.
Lifestyle Investigation - to identify the nature of a client's style of life - which lyields infomraiton about the client's family constellation, fiction goals, and basic mistakes (distored beliefs and attitudes)
Adler Application
To individual therapy and group therapy, family and marital counseling, parent educaiotn, and teacher-student relationshiops.
Systematic Training for Effective Teaching
Based on Adlers approach and asumes that all behavior is goal-directed and purposeful. Attention, power, revenge, or to display defiency.
Carol Jung
Adopted a borader view of personality development than freud and defined libido as general psychic energy. Behavior determined by past and future goals
Jungs Personality Theory
Analytical psychotherapy
Concious and Unconsious what they are directed by
Personltiy is the consequence of both conscious and unconscious factors. The conscious is oriented toward the external world, is governed by the ego and represents the indiviudals thoughts, ideas , feelings , sensory persoptions, and memories.
Unconscious contains expereinces that were onces conscious but are now repressed or forgotten or were unconsciously percieved.
Collective unconscious - Jung
repository or latent memory traces that have been passed down from one generation to the next.
Archetypes - Jung
importance to personlaity development include the self, represents a striving for unity of the different parts of personality
Jung's different parts of personality
the persona - public mask
Shadow- dark side of personality
The anima and animus - famimine and masculine aspects of he personality
Personality Two Attitudes - Jung and four psychological functions
Extraversion and Introversion
thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuiting
Jung's view of development
as continuing throuout the lifespan and was most interested in growth after the mid 30s.
Individuation - Jung
integration of the conscious and unconscious aspects of one's pscyche, leading to the development of a unique identity - wisdom develops and occus in the later years when one intersts turn toward spiritual and philosophical issues
Maladaptive Behavior - Jung
symptoms are "unconscios messages to the individual that something is awry with him and that present him with a task that demands to be fulfilled
Therapy Goals and Tech - Jung
rebridge the gap between the conscious and the personal and collective unconscious.
Jungians rely primarily on terpretations that are designed to help a client become aware of his or her inner world. Particularly intersted in dreams and the interpretation of dreams.
positive view of human nature and emphazies the health aspects of he clients personaltiy.
Focus on her and now and past info only when help the client understand present
Transference - Jung
prjections of the personal and collective unconscious - crucial part of therapy.
Object Relations Theorists
Relationship with others as a basic inborn drive, and they emphasize a child's early relationships with objects, especially the child's internalized repreasentations of objects and object relations.
Introjects - Object Relations
internalized representations of a child
Personality Theory - Object Relations
Mahler focuses ont he process by which an infant assumes his or her own physical and psychological identity. Development entails several phases.
1- normal autism
2 - 3 Normal symbiosis - infant fusd with his or her mother an does not differentiate between I and NOT - I.
Seperation-Individuaation - Object Relations
The actual development of object relations occurs here. Which begins at about four months of age and is composed of serveral substabes.
Substates of Seperation-Individuation - Object Relations
1- child takes steps toward seperation through sensory exploration of he environment
2- period of conflict between independence and dependence - separation anxiety.
3 - child developes permanent sense of self and object percieve othes as separte and related by 3 years old.
Object Constancy - Object Relations
development of the personal sense of object.
View of Maladaptive Behavior -Object RElations
the result of abnormalities in early object relations. Mahler traces adult psychopathology to problems that occurred during separatino-individuation.
Represations of the self andothers into "good" and "bad" - inadequae splitting cause of maladaptive behavior.
Therapy Goals and Tech. - Object Relations
pscyhotherapy as an opportunity to provide the client with support, acceptance, and other conditions that restore the cleints' ability to relate to others in meaningful ways.
Teleological - Adler
views behavior as being motivated largely by future goals.
Personal Unconscious - Adler
contains material that was once conscious but is now repressed or forgotten
Collective Unconscious - Adler
memories that have benn passed down from one generation to the next.
Splitting - Kernberg - Object Relation
Splitting objects and object relations into good and bad components.