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34 Cards in this Set

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shaping
procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximateion of a desired goal
reinforcer
in operant conditioning and event that stregnthens the behavior it follows
primary reinforcer
an innately reinforcing stimulus
conditioned reinforcer
a stimulus that gains its reingforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
continous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired repsonse every time it occurs
partial reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time
fixed ratio-schedule
a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
variable-ratio schedule
a schedule of reinforcemtn that reinforces a respsone after an unpredictable number of respsonses
fixed-interval schedule
a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after specified time has elapsed
variable-interval schedule
a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
punishment
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentie to demonstrate it
overjustification effect
the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do
observational learning
learning by observing others
modeling
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior.
learning
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together
behaviorism
the view that psychology should be an ovjective science and studies begavior w/o reference to mental processes
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli
unconditional respsonse
the unlearned naturally occuring response to the unconditioned stimulus
unconditioned stimulus
a stimulus that unconditionally- naturally and automatically triggers a response
conditioned stimulus
an originally irrelevant stimulus that, afters association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
acquisition
the initial stage in classical conditioning
extinction
the diminishing of a conditioned response
sponteous recovery
the reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response
generalization
the tendency, once a presponse has been conditioned for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
discrimination
the learned ability to distinguis between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to same stimulus
operant behavior
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
law of effect
thorndike's principle that behaviors more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
operant chamber
a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer with devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking