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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
reciprocity norm
the widespread sense of obligation that people have to return favors
social dilemmas
a situation in which a particular action will (a) benefit the individual who takes it, (b) harm the individuals and (c) cause more harm than benefit to everyone if everyone takes it
prisoners dilemma games
a class of laboratory games in which the tendency to compete can be pitted against the tendency to cooperate. in such games, the highest combined payoff to the two players occurs if both choose the cooperative response, but the highest individual payoff goes to a player who choose the competitive response on a play in which the other chooses the cooperative response
superordinate goals
the goals shared by two or more groups, which tend to foster cooperation among the groups
social pain
the discomfort that people feel when they are socially rejected or when they lose a valued companion
self-conscious emotions
the feelings of guilt, shame, embarrassment, and pride, which are linked to thoughts about the self or ones own actions
personality
the relatively consistent patterns of thought, feeling, and behavior that characterize each person as a unique individual
trait
a hypothetical, relatively stable, inner characteristic that influences the way a person responds to various environmental situations
trait theories of personality
theories of personality that are based on the idea that people can be described and differentiated in terms of hypothetical underlying personality dimensions, called traits, which can be measured by questionnaires or other quantitative means
factor analysis
a statistical procedure for analyzing the correlations among various measurements (such as test scores) taken from a given set of individuals; it identifies hypothetical, underlying variables called "factors" that could account for the observed pattern of correlations and assesses the degree to which each factor is adequately measured by each of the measurements that was used in the analysis
five-factor model of personality
model holding that a persons personality is most efficiently described in terms of his or her score on each of five relatively independent global trait dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
sibling contrast
tendency to emphasize and exaggerate the difference between siblings
psychoanalysis
the theory of the mind developed by Freud, which emphasizes the roles of unconscious mental processes, early childhood experiences, and the drives of sex and aggression in personality formation
psychodynamic theories of personality
any theory that describes personality and its development in terms of inner mental forces that are often in conflict with one another and are shaped by experiences in early childhood
defense mechanisms
in psychoanalytic theory, self-deceptive means by which the mind defends itself against anxiety
repression
the defense mechanism by which the mind prevents anxiety-prvoking ideas from becoming conscious
displacement
the defense mechanism by which a drive is diverted from one goal to another that is more realistic or acceptable
reaction formation
the defense mechanism by which the mind turns a frightening wish into its safer opposite
projection
the defense mechanism by which a person consciously experiences his or her own unconscious emotion or wish as though it belongs to someone else or to some part of the environment
rationalization
the defense mechanism by which a person uses conscious reasoning to justify or explain away his or her harmful or irrational behaviors or thoughts
phenomenological reality
humanistic theorists' term for each person's conscious understanding of his or her world
self-actualization
in humanistic psychology the fulfillment of drives that go beyond ones survival needs and pertain to psychological growth, creativity, and self-expression
personal myth
the ever-changing self-told story of an individual that gives a sense of direction and meaning to one's life
social cognitive theories of personality
theories of personality that emphasize the roles of beliefs and habits of thought that are acquired through ones unique experiences in the social environment
social psychology
the branch of psychology that attempts to understand how the behavior and subjective experiences of individuals are influenced by the actual or imagined presence of other people
person bias
the tendency to attribute a persons behavior too much to the persons inner characteristics (personality) and not enough to the environmental situation. sometimes called the fundamental attribution error
self-esteem
a persons feeling of approval and acceptance of himself or herself
social comparison
any process in which an individual evaluates his or her own abilities, characteristics, ideas, or achievements by comparing them with those of other people
reference group
a group of people with whom an individual compares himself or herself for the purpose of self-evaluation
personal identity
the portion of the self-concept that pertains to the self as a distinct separate individual
social identity
the portion of the self-concept that pertains to the social categories or groups of which the person is a part
stereotype
mental concepts by which people characterize specific groups or categories of people
explicit stereotypes
stereotypes that people hold consciously
implicit stereotypes
stereotypes that automatically, unconsciously influence peoples judgements and actions toward others
implicit association tests
tests of a persons automatic, unconscious mental associations, designed to assess implicit stereotypes or other implicit attitudes
explicit attitudes
conscious attitudes; that is, attitudes that people are aware of holding and can state verbally
implicit attitudes
attitudes that are manifested in a persons behavior or automatic mental associations, even though the person may not be conscious of holding those attitudes
elaboration likelihood model
a theory of persuasion postulating that people are more likely to think logically about a message (that is, elaborate upon the message) if it is personally relevant than if it is not
cognitive dissonance theory
festingers theory that people seek to relieve the discomfort associated with the awareness of inconsistency between two or more of ones own cognition's (beliefs or bits of knowledge)
insufficient-justification effect
a change in attitude that serves to justify an action that seems unjustified in the light of the previously held attitude
social facilitation (social interference)
the tendency to perform a task worse in front of others than when alone