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123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The 2-year-old human brain weighs ______ percent of the adult brain.
75%
By age 5, the brain has reached about _____ of its adult weight.
90%
The process of myelination involves:

A)
bone growth.

B)
nerve insulation.

C)
muscle growth.

D)
parents' teaching their children.
B nerve insulation
Myelination:

A)
connects the two halves of the brain.

B)
compensates for loss of brain function due to injury.

C)
promotes regular childhood sleep patterns.

D)
speeds up the transmission of neural impulses.
D speeds up the transmission of neural impulses
The ability to generate several thoughts in rapid succession is most specifically related to:

A)
eating healthy foods.

B)
myelination.

C)
frontal cortex maturation.

D)
development of new axons.
B myelination
A disorder that may result from abnormal development of the corpus collosum is:

A)
hearing impairment.

B)
nearsightedness.

C)
extreme impulsivity.

D)
autism.
D autism
The part of the brain responsible for planning and analyzing matures during:

A)
infancy.

B)
the toddler years.

C)
early childhood.

D)
adolescence.
c early childhood 2-6
Impulsiveness and perseveration are the same in that they both represent:

A)
an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex.

B)
too much emotional control.

C)
strict discipline.

D)
bad parenting.
A an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex
The ability to control one's impulsiveness appears to be directly related to the development of the:

A)
parietal cortex.

B)
prefrontal cortex.

C)
striate cortex.

D)
frontal cortex.
B prefrontal cortex
Janie just cannot seem to keep from becoming extremely angry when she does not get her way. Her ability to reign in this tendency toward tantrums will get better when her ______ has further matured.

A)
parietal cortex

B)
prefrontal cortex

C)
striate cortex

D)
frontal cortex
B prefrontal cortex
Hamilton asks his Dad to put on a “Thomas the Train” DVD and his Dad complies. No more than 3 minutes into the movie, Hamilton wants to play with his toy cars on the floor. This inability to stay focused on one thing at a time is due to the immaturity of his:

A)
parietal cortex.

B)
prefrontal cortex.

C)
striate cortex.

D)
frontal cortex.
B prefrontal
Once a young child starts to cry, it tends to continue to do so long after whatever the initial cause, sometimes frustrating the parent. This behavior is an example of:

A)
perseveration.

B)
myelination.

C)
lateralization.

D)
transubstantiation.
A preservation
The amygdala is a brain structure that registers:
emotions
The increased activity of the amygdala is a reason that children during the play years experience:
frightening nightmares
The hippocampus is a structure in the brain that processes:
memory
Jesse's home life was extremely stressful and violent until he was placed into foster care at age six. Upon entering first grade, it was apparent that some learning and memory deficits existed. That is because:

A)
he didn't trust that adults could teach him.

B)
part of his hippocampus was destroyed by stress hormones.

C)
he wasn't interested in learning, only in being safe.

D)
he preferred to play rather than try to learn.
B part of his hippocampus was destroyed by stress hormones.
An example of a gross motor skills is:

A)
painting a picture.

B)
dialing a phone.

C)
picking up a bug.

D)
swimming across a pool.
D swimming across a pool
Gross motor skills such a riding a tricycle are acquired:

A)
solely through many opportunities for practice.

B)
automatically when brain maturation occurs.

C)
through a combination of brain maturation and practice.

D)
only if the parents are well coordinated.
C through a combination of brain maturation and practice
The best example of a fine motor skill is:

A)
using scissors to cut paper.

B)
swimming across a pool.

C)
roller-skating around the block.

D)
playing catch with a football.
A using scissors to cut paper
Preschoolers often have trouble tying their shoelaces because they have inadequate:
B fine motor skill development
The most common cause(s) of death of children worldwide is(are):
A accidents
Mothers who are depressed, financially stressed, and whose infants tend to have difficult temperaments may maltreat their babies. Those mothers tend to:

A)
ask for help in coping with a difficult child.

B)
blame the baby for crying.

C)
distance themselves from the baby during especially stressful times.

D)
attend parenting classes.
C)
distance themselves from the baby during especially stressful times.
The term “child maltreatment” applies to children under the age of:
18
Pete's father is physically abusive toward him, often leaving bruises. His mother, also living in the home, witnesses the abuse but says nothing. She is:

A)
compassionate but quiet.

B)
neglectful.

C)
supportive of Pete.

D)
an innocent victim.
neglectful
Armando started preschool at age three. His teacher observed that he is small for his age, underweight, and is delayed in language development. His parents are unconcerned, declaring that it's just “his way.” However, the teacher suspects:


A)
physical abuse.


B)
maltreatment.


C)
an undetected medical problem.


D)
that Armando was a preterm infant.
B maltreated
A mistreated child who is startled at any noise and is continually looking around to see who is coming up to them is showing symptoms of:


A)
ADD/HD.


B)
OCD.


C)
PTSD.


D)
ADD.
C PTSD
Symptoms of maltreatment include:


A)
an “out-of-body” feeling.


B)
hypervigilance.


C)
hypo-manic reactions.


D)
depersonalization.
B Hypervigilance
* quick, impulsive reactions like cringing, starting, or hitting
Children who are fearful, easily startled, and confused between reality and fantasy are expressing symptoms of:


A)
child abuse.


B)
post-traumatic stress disorder.


C)
neglect.


D)
battered child syndrome.
B post traumatic stress disorder
The goal in dealing with child maltreatment is to:


A)
decide if legal action is needed.


B)
provide family counseling.


C)
restore children's health.


D)
stop it before it begins.
D stop it before it begins
Preoperational intelligence differs from sensorimotor intelligence in that preoperational intelligence:


A)
goes beyond senses and motor skills.


B)
includes logical reasoning.


C)
is characterized by reversibility of thought.


D)
is comprised of simple abstractions.
A goes beyond senses and motor skills
what is preoperational intelligence
Piaget term for cognitive development
includes: language
imagination, it is magical and self centered
Piaget called cognitive development between the ages of two and six ______ intelligence.


A)
operational


B)
egocentric


C)
preoperational


D)
symbiotic
C preoperational
Piaget believed that between the ages of two and six, it is difficult for children to think:


A)
subjectively.


B)
egocentrically.


C)
operationally.


D)
abstractly.
C operationally
Using logical principles is a characteristic of:


A)
symbolic thought.


B)
centration.


C)
pragmatic reasoning.


D)
operational thought.
D operational thought.
The Piagetian term for centration in which the child thinks about the world exclusively from his or her personal perspective is called:


A)
theory-theory.


B)
egocentrism.


C)
static perspective.


D)
world view.
ego centrism
Thinking about one idea at a time, ignoring other ideas, is known as:
centration
To focus on one aspect of a situation and simultaneously exclude all others is called:
centration.
When children demonstrate centration, they:


A)
are in the formal operational stage.


B)
cannot make a decision.


C)
cannot solve math problems in their heads.


D)
only look at one aspect of a problem.
only look at one aspect of a problem.
Nine-year-old Bobby has no problem understanding that the 20-year-old who sometimes stays with him is both a student and a baby-sitter. According to Piaget, Bobby's thinking is no longer characterized by:


A)
conservation.


B)
object permanence.


C)
overregularization.


D)
centration
centration
Specify the preoperational characteristic:


A)
decentration


B)
reversibility


C)
deductive reasoning


D)
focus on appearance
focus on appearance
When Jennie sees her third-grade teacher in the grocery store, she does not recognize her. This is likely due to Jennie's:


A)
static reasoning.


B)
abstract reasoning.


C)
concrete thinking.


D)
irreversibility.
static reasoning.
The characteristic irreversibility refers to the preoperational child's tendency to:


A)
focus on something other than appearances.


B)
use deductive reasoning to solve a problem.


C)
be unable to think backwards from a conclusion to the beginning.


D)
engage in centration when another solution is needed.
be unable to think backwards from a conclusion to the beginning.
To assume that the world is unchanging is to engage in:


A)
magical thinking.


B)
static reasoning.


C)
centration.


D)
a focus on appearances only.
static reasoning
If a preschool child thinks a tall 20-year-old is older than a short 40-year-old, this is an example of:


A)
egocentrism.


B)
static thinking.


C)
focus on appearance.


D)
symbolic thinking.
focus on appearance
The aspect of preoperational thought that focuses on transformation is:


A)
centration.


B)
focus on appearances.


C)
static reasoning.


D)
irreversibility
irreversibility
what would you tell a child to make them feel GUILT ?
"no, your doing it all wrong"
too much positive?
maladaptation
too much negative?
malignancy
what is Eriksons third stage
2. what is the maladaptation
3. malignancy
Initiative vs guilt
2. being ruthless (vicious, mean)
3. inhibition *low self esteem, hard to try new activities
becoming ruthless tells us what about the parents?
they are lacking parental control
how a person evaluates his or her own worth, either in specifics or overall (intelligence, attractiveness)
self esteem
a persons understanding of who he or she is. includes appearance, personality, diff traits
self concept
shame come before __?
which one is a more advanced emotion and why ?
guilt
shame is more advanced because it comes from within
what does psychopathology literally mean?
mind disease
or diseased mind
__and __ are connected to motivation
concentration and self esteem
what does guilt mean
when people blame themselves because they have done something wrong
emotional regulation begins with __?
impulse control
what impulse is most necessary to control and why
anger because it may trigger aggression or oppositional behavior
difficulty with emotional regulation that involves outwardly expressing emotions in uncontrolled ways
externalizing problem
being "under controlled"
-mostly happens with males
difficulty with emotional regulation that involves tuning ones emotional distress inward
internalizing problems
being "over controlled"
-mostly happens with females
ex. cutting
authoritarian parenting
* high behavioral standards
* strict punishment
* low communication
*rarely affectionate
permissive parenting
*high nuturance
* high communication
* rare punishment, guidance or control
authoritative parenting
* set limits, enforce rules
* usually forgiving not punishing
* they listen to their children
* consider themselves as guides, not authorities
Authoritarian children end up
*Conscientious, Obedient, Quiet
*They tend to feel guilty / depressed and rebel.
*leaving home before 20
Permissive children end up
*Unhappy, Lack of self-control, *immure & impedes friendships
*tend to live at home, dependent
Authoritative children end up
*Successful, Articulate, Happy & Generous to others
*Tend to be liked by teachers & peers
define androgyny
what is the goal?
a balance within-self of traditionally male & female psychological characteristics
*so kids can develop less restrictive, gender free self-concept
to achieve androgyny what should be encouraged
in males? in females?
males- encouraged to be nurturant
females- encouraged to be assertive
the epigenetic theory states that our traits & behaviors are a result of ?
interaction between genes & early experiences
1. According to Erikson, as children develop self-awareness and recognize their own mistakes, they feel:
guilty
2. Authoritarian parents welcome their childrens' opinions and are sensitive to their feelings. A. True B. False
false
3. To begin to regulate their emotions, children must first start to learn impulse control. A) True B) False
TRue
4. Both permissive and authoritarian parenting styles tend to produce children who are depressed.
A) true B)false
True
5. Piaget's term for centration in which the child thinks about the world from his or her own personal perspective is: A) hypervigilance B) egocentration C) conservation D) egocentrism
egocentrism
6. The part of the brain which registers emotions such as fear and anxiety is the: A. amygdala
B. hippocampus C. cerebellum D. prefrontal cortex
amygdala
7. Temper tantrums should subside as the preschool years continue. A. True B. False
true
8. By school age, maltreated children may be: A. withdrawn B. aggressive C. not resilient to stress
D. all of these E. A and C only
all of these
Withdrawn
Aggressive
Not Resilient to stress
9. Hypervigilance may be a sign of child maltreatment. A. True B. False
true
10. The authoritative parenting style has high levels of communication, both from parent to child and from child to parent. A. True B. False
true
11. Throughout the play years, children may confuse gender and sex differences. A. True B. False
true
12. During the preschool years, children begin to think logically, according to Piaget. A. True B. False
false
2-6 is preoperatinal thoughts
1. Kohlberg determined morality level by studying:
A. the thought underneath the behavior
B. the behavior exhibited
C. the speed with which people act
the thought underneath the behavior
2. I don't turn my friend in for selling drugs because of perceived peer pressure. I am at Kohlberg's Stage __.
A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4
stage 3
proper behavior is behavior that pleases other people. social approval is more important than any other specific reward
3. The psychosocial task of the school years is: A. industry vs. inferiority B. truth vs. shame and guilt
C. achievement vs. failure
industry vs inferiority
4. Statistics show that grade school childrens’ self-esteem improves during early grade school years. A. T B. F
true
5. Piaget thought that between 7 and 11 children are in the period of: A. conventional morality B. latency
C. concrete operations D. concrete structure
concrete operations
6. Erikson's concept of industry is related to competency and mastery. A. True B. False
true
7. What % of adult brain weight is the child's brain at age 5? A. 25 B. 50 C. 75 D. 90
90%
8. How many substantiated cases of child abuse are found yearly in the U.S.?
A. 100,000 B. 1,000,000 C. 10,000,000
100,000
9. The tendency, when considering a situation, to only focus on one aspect of it at a time, is called:
A. analyzing B. logical thinking C. centration D. delineation
centration
10. Vygotsky believed we are surrounded by a zone of proximal ___. A. scaffolding B. development
D. dimensions
development
11. Externalizing problems and internalizing problems are both failures of proper emotional regulation.
A. True B. False
true
12. What is the average I.Q. score? A. 80 B. 90 C. 100 D. 115
100
13. Concrete operations marks the beginning of the ability to think: A. about hypothetical possibilities
B. logically C. without making mistakes when stressed D. in ways as advanced as those in adulthood
logically
14. Which parenting style produces children who have the most difficulty with successful friendship relationships?
A. authoritarian B. insecure-avoidant C. permissive D. disorganized E. authoritative
permissive
15. Which is not a pre-operational characteristic? A. centration B. classification C. egocentrism D. focus on appearance
classification
16. Which would be the most troubling, emotionally, for an 8-year-old? A. ruthlessness B. inertia C. inhibition
D. narrow virtuosity
inertia
17. Externalization of emotional difficulties is more common among girls than boys. A. True B. False
false
18. What is the nature of the relationship between the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex in a 3 year old?
A. the amygdala is not yet generating strong emotions, so the prefrontal cortex is able to function well in the regulation of emotions. B. the prefrontal cortex, being largely undeveloped, still generates strong emotions
C. the prefrontal cortex struggles to cope with the strong emotions emanating from the amygdala
D. due to the imbalance in development between amygdala and prefrontal cortex, 3 year olds need a great deal of parental comforting and assistance so that they may learn to better their ability to regulate emotions.
E. C and D are both correct
c and d are correct
9. Which 2 types of conservation did I tell you that you were responsibile for on this test? A. volume and number
B. volume and area C. number and area D. volume and length
?
20. A maltreated child may be confused between fantasy and reality. A. True B. False
true
21. A child who does well in Erikson’s 3rd stage should gain the psychological strength of:
A. purpose and courage B. will and determination C. competency D. egocentrism
purpose and courage
22. Which of the following would Piaget be the most likely reason for not spanking pre-schoolers?
A. it could do psychological damage B. they are not capable of understanding the reasons for the spanking
C. the spanking is not effective in curbing inappropriate behavior D. they are not capable of remembering the reasons for the spanking
they are not capable of understanding the reasons for the spanking
23. What holiday comes at the end of this month? A.. Christmas B. the Easter Bunny C. All Fools Day
D. Halloween
halloween
24. In Erikson’s 3rd stage, parents should discourage fantasy so that children can learn to think logically. A. True B. False
false
25. What’s the difference between spinach and boogers?
A. you can’t get a kid to eat spinach B. they are both green
you cant get a kid to eat enough spinach
26.
The best advice for parents to improve their child's diet and promote healthy eating habits is to: A) eliminate all “snacks.” B) offer many healthy foods as alternatives when they become hungry. C) not set the child up to expect “treats.” D) cut down on the availability of desserts at the end of lunch and evening meals.
B) offer many healthy foods as alternatives when they become hungry.
27.
The ability to generate several thoughts in rapid succession is most specifically related to: A) eating healthy foods. B) myelination. C) frontal cortex maturation. D) development of new axons.
myelination
28.
A disorder that may result from abnormal development of the corpus collosum is: A) hearing impairment. B) nearsightedness. C) extreme impulsivity. D) autism.
autism
Each time Juan puts a puzzle together, his father gives him a little less help. Which theorist would be happy with Juan's father? A) Piaget B) Vygotsky C) Skinner D) Freud
vygotsky
Mrs. Suttman helps her 2-year-old daughter count blocks and measure teaspoons of cocoa. Mrs. Suttman is providing: A) scaffolding and structure. B) overstimulation. C) conservation skills. D) peer tutoring.
scaffolding
An angry 5-year-old might stop herself from hitting another child, because she has developed: A) social referencing. B) self-esteem. C) identification. D) emotional regulation.
emotional regulation
An example of antisocial behavior is: A) Jamie tries to share his toys with Jill. B) Mark intentionally knocks over Simon's blocks. C) Holly watches while other children are playing jump rope. D) Courtney helps her mom rake the leaves
Mark intentionally knocks over Simon's blocks.
According to Erikson, as children develop self-awareness and realize their own mistakes, they feel: A) empowered. B) anger. C) guilty. D) shamed.
guilty
Childhood obesity is made more complicated by: A) the interaction of genes and the environment. B) the number of government agencies involved. C) the number of hours children watch TV. D) improper health habits.
the interaction of genes and the environment
Extensive neural myelination allows: A) sensory neurons to carry messages faster than motor neurons. B) the normal brain to correct errors made in the genetic code for autism. C) academic intelligence to develop. D) automatization to improve.
sensory neurons to carry messages faster than motor neurons
Aptitude tests are designed to measure: A) how much has been learned. B) potential for accomplishment. C) capacity for divergent thinking. D) verbal abilities.
potential for accomplishment
Piaget has provided us with the ______ of children's concepts, whereas Vygotsky has provided us with the ______. A) cognitive context; behaviorist context B) empirical context; experimental context C) individual context; social context D) social context; individual context
individual context; social context
Compared to 7-year-olds, children age 11 are much: A) more egocentric. B) better thinkers. C) more intuitive. D) less teachable.
better thinkers.
The Piagetian concept that certain characteristics of an object remain the same despite changes in the object's appearance is: A) identity. B) reversibility. C) reciprocity. D) object permanence.
reversibility
Identify the stage 5 response concerning highway speeding. A) Janet does not speed because, “If I did, everyone else could speed too.” B) Chrissy speeds because she is in a big hurry. C) Jack does not speed because he knows that he could get a ticket. D) Stanley speeds because his passenger loves going fast and is impressed by him.
Stanley speeds because his passenger loves going fast and is impressed by him.
Susan decides not to tell the teacher that her classmate Ian is cheating on the math exam because she's afraid the other kids will call her a snitch. This is an example of stage ______ of moral development. A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4
3 good girl and nice boy
proper behavior that pleases other people. social behavior is more important than any specific reward
The child who weathers severe family problems, even abuse, and somehow has remained unscathed in the process is termed as: A) buoyant. B) resilient. C) parasympathetic. D) unflappable.
resilient