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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Basic building block of the nervous system
neuron
The bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
dendrite
the extension of a neuron in which messages are sent to other neurons, muscles, or glands
axon
a layer of fatty cells segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons
+ enables vastly greater transmission speed of neutral impulses
myelin sheath
level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
threshold
a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
action potential
junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
synapse
chemical messangers
neurotransmitters
enables muscle action, learning, and memory
Acetycholine
Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion
Dopamine
Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
Serotonin
Helps control alertness and arousal
Norepinephrine
A major inhibitory transmitter
GABA
A major excitatory neurotransmitter
Glutamate
natural opiate like neurotransmitter linked to pain and pleasure
endorphins
the body's speedy electrochemical communication system
nervous system
the brain and spinal cord are part of the _______ system
central nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS with the rest of the body
peripheral nervous system
CNS neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor inputs
Interneurons
carry outgoing info from CNS to muscles and glands
motor neurons
controls the bodies skeletal muscles
somatic nervous system
controls the bodies glands and muscles of internal glands
autonomic nervous system
division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
sympathetic nervous system
division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving energy
parasympathetic nervous system
the oldest and central core of the brain
brainstem
base of the brainstem
medulla
the brain's sensory switchboard - located on the top of the brainstem
thalamus
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem - movement and balance
cerebellum
tissue destruction
lesion
a series of xrays taken at different angles
CAT scan
a visual display of brain activity - detects glucose
PET scan
allows us to see structures within the brain
MRI
doughnut shaped system of neutral structures at the border of the brainstem
limbic system
2 almond shaped neural clusters
amygdala
the body's ultimate control and information center
cerebral cortex
part of the cerebral cortex involved with speaking and muscle movements
frontal lobes
includes the sensory cortex
parietal lobes
includes the visual areas
occipital lobes
include auditory areas
temporal lobes