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47 Cards in this Set

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Thorndike Law of Effect
an organism's responses may be altered depending on the effects they produce in the environment
B. F. Skinner
measuring an operant response (behavior we are looking to increase or decrease)
Shaping-
an operant conditioning procedure of rewarding successive approximations to the desired goal
Reinforcement-
a consequence from your behavior that makes you more likely to engage in that behavior again
punishment
operant- a consequence from your behavior that makes you less likely to engage, decreases the behavior
negative punishment-
decreasing behavior by subtracting a positive stimulus
Primary Reinforcers
require no learning in order for the reward to be leasurable (food) quality and quantity are important (love/affection, water, sex)
Secondary REinforcers-
Grades, trophies
Edward Tolman
Cognitive learning- cognitive mapping
Albert Bandura
cognitive learning- social learning- the idea that through observation and imitation we learn to interact in society- Bobo doll experiment
correlational study
ex post facto, shows relationship, doesn't give cause + effect
Memory-( 3 ) Steps to retainitn information
1. encoding
2. storing
3. retrieving
Encoding
making mental representations
STORING
older placed in permanent storage, newer stored according to how it relates to old
RETRIEVING
the process of recalling the information that has been placed in either long term or shor tterm memory
Sensory Memory (2 kinds)
1. Iconic
2. Echoic
Sensory memory- Iconic
sense of vision -we hold picture 1/4 of a second , just long enough to keep steady (eyue is constantly moving)
Sensory memory- Echoic
we hold onto auditory information for 1-2 secs, enough time to recall or play it back
SENSORY MEMORY
initial process that receives and hold environmental information - holds onto information just long enough to process it and make sense of it
Short Term Memory
working memory, information that we have received and processed at least minimally, 7 items, chunking
FUNCTIONS OF short term memory
1. allows us to attend to things in our environment
2. rehearsing- repeating
3. storing in long term
FUNCTIONS OF Long Term Memory
limitless storage, some items are altered or lost
FORGETTING = (3)
ENCODING FAILURE, STORAGE DECAY, RETRIEVAL FAILURE
INTERFERENCE- proactive vs retroactive
proactive= repressions, old information interferes with out ability to access new memories

retroactive= misinformation effect, source amnesia, learning spanish, then when trying to learn french, constantly thinking of spanish
Personality made up of: (3)
emotion, mood, temperament
EMOTION
IN THE MOMENT, TIED TO SPECIFIC THINGS
MOOD
NOT QUITE AS INTENSE , LASTS HOURS TO A DAY
TEMPERAMENT
general disposition toward environment that you are born with
Sigmund Freud
psychoanalytic, Ego, Id, Superego
EGO
unconscious mind, executive mediator, deals with reality
ID
unconscious psychic energy, pleasure seeking, avoid pain, sex drive, aggressive impulses, born into ID, completely unconscious
SUPEREGO
internalized ideas , concsience develops around 1 yr old, right vs wrong, outside notions in environment become internalized
EGO unconscious defense mechanisms
denial, repression, regression, humor, projection, reaction, formation, rationalization
Freud's Psychosexual STates
oral stage 1yr
anal state 1.5-3 yrs
freud's psychosexual stages
oral stage 1yrs
anal stage 1.5-3 yrs
fallic stabe- 3-6 yrs Oedipus complex
latency 6-puberty
genital puberty to adulthood
Carl Jung
collective unconscious we all shar a portion of the collective unconscious mind, we all put elements that we all have to ability to tap into
archetypes
preexisting models of personality types that heac of us have access to, ex hero, mother
Ancient Greek personality types
melancholic (depressed)
Maslow
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
self actualization
esteem
belongingness and love
safety
pysiological
Carol Rogers
Person Centered Therapy, said people are basically good, by giving unconditional positive regard gives people ability to be successful
Dynamic Approach-
personality changing by experience, FReud
Trait Approach
characteristic pattern of behaving disposition to act of feel, self report
Myers-Briggs
Intuitive vs Sensing
Thinking vs Feeling
Judging vs Perceiving
INtroverted vs Extroverted
MMPI
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality INverntory, designed to screed for mental (emotional and personality) disorders
PHYSIOLOGY- JEROME KAGAN
level of arousal and activity in frontal lobe,
Introverted- more easily arroused, higher states of arousal, less stimulus required
Estroverted- seeking activity, social situations, lover level of activity in frontal lobe
Big FIVE
Emotional STability
Extroversion
Openness
Agreeability
Conscienciousness