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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Psychology
the scientific study of behavior and the mind
Deulism
The assumption that the body and mind are seperate, though perhaps interacting, entities
Introspection
Wundt's method of having trained observers report on their conscious, moment-to-moment reactions.
psychoanalysis
Freud's theory of personality and method of psychotherapy, both of which assume that our motives are largely unconscious.
Behaviorism
A school of though that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior
Cognition
A general term that refers to mental processes such as thinking, knowing, and remembering.
Basic Research
"Pure Science" research that tests theories and builds a foundation of knowledge.
Applied Research
Research that aims to solve practical human problems.
Critical Thinking
The process of solving problems and making decisions through a careful evaluation of evidence.
Theory
An organized set of principles that describes, predicts, and explains some phenomenon.
Hypothesis
A specific testable prediction, often derived from a theory.
Operational definition
A concrete definition of a research variable in terms of the procedures needed to control and measure it.
Laboratory research
Research conducted in an environment that can be regulated and in which participants can be carefully observed.
Feild research
Research that is conducted in real-world locations.
Self-report
A method of observation that involves asking people to describe their own thoughts, feelings, or behavior.
Behavioral Observation
A form of research that is based on the firsthand observation of a subject's behavior.
Archival Research
A form of research that relies on existing records of past behavior.
Statistics
A branch of mathematics that is used for analyzing research data.
Case studies
A type of research that involves making in-depth observations of individual persons.
Survey
A research method that involves interviewing or giving questionnaires to a large number of people
Epidemiology
The study of the distribution of illness in a population
Random Sample
A method of selection in which everyone in a population has an equal chance of being chosen.
Naturalistic Observation
The observation of behavior as it occurs naturally in real-world settings.
Correlation
A statistical measure of the extent to which two variables are associated.
Scatterplot
A graph in which the paired scores (X,Y) for many participants are plotted as single points to reveal the direction and strength of their correlation.
Experiment
A type of research in which the investigator varies some factors, keeps others constant, and measures the effects on randomly assigned participants.
Independent Variable
Any variable that the researcher manipulates in the experiment (the proposed cause)
Dependent Variable
A variable that is being measured in an experiment (the proposed effect)
Experimental Group
Any condition of an experiment in which paricipants are exposed to an independent variable.
Control Group
The condition of an experiment in which participants are not exposed to the independent variable.
Random assignment
The procedure of assigning participants to conditions of an experiment in an arbitrary manner.
Replication
The process of repeating a study to see if the results are reliable enough to be duplicated
Generalizability
The extent to which a finding applies to a broad range of subject populations and circumstances.
Meta-analysis
A set of statistical procedures used to review a body of evidence by combining the results of individual studies.
Deception
A research procedure used to mislead participants about the true purpose of the study.
Informed Consent
The ethical requirement that prospective paricipants recieve enough information to permit them to decide freely whether to participate in a study.
Evolutionary psychology
A subfeild that uses the principles of evolution to understand human social behavior.
Behavioral Genetics
A subfeild that examines the role of genetic factors on behavior.
Behavioral Neuroscience
A subfield that studies the links among the brain, nervous system, and behavior.
Cross-culture research
A body of studies designed to compare and contrast people of different cultures
Multicultural Research
A body of studies designed to compare and contrast racial and ethinic minority groups within cultures