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26 Cards in this Set

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Why are we interested in development if we want to explain human behavior?
To try to shed light on how people arrive at their various destinations in life.
What are the stages of prenatal development?
Germinal, Embryonic, and Fetal.
When is the developing organism most vunerable to damage?
Embryonic Stage
What is an easy child when it comes to the styles of temperment?
Children who tended to be happy, regular in sleep and eating, adaptable, and not easily upset. 40%
What is a slow-to-warm-up child when it comes to styles of temperment?
Children who were less cheery, less regular in their sleep and eating, and slower in adapting to change. They were weary of new experiences and their emotional reactivity was moderate. 15%
What is a difficult child when it comes to the styles of temperment?
Children that tended to be glum, erratic in sleep and eating, resistant to change, and relatively irritable. 10%
What does it mean if a child has a secure attatchment?
The child tends to be playful, curious, exploration-oriented, and sociable. Gleeful when reunited with caregiver after seperation.
What does it mean if a child has an anxious-ambivalent attachment?
The child tends to cling to caregivers, wary; not gleeful when reunited with caregiver after seperation.
What does it mean if a child has an avoidant attachment?
The child tends to maintain proximity while avoiding close contact with caregiver. Not gleeful when reunited with caregiver.
What kinds of things can influence attachment?
The warmth and nuturance given from caregiver, the parenting styles of caregiver (setting and enforcing reasonable rules), and the temperment of the child.
Erikson's Stage: Trust vs. Mistrust
Stage 1: First years of life - Infant has to depend completely on adults to take care of its basic needs. If needs are met by caregivers, child should develop an optimistic, trusting attitude toward the world.
Erikson's Stage: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Stage 2: 2nd and 3rd years of life - Child must begin to take some personal responisbility for feeding, dressing, and bathing. If parents are never satisfied with child's efforts, the child may develop a sense of personal shame and self-doubt.
Erikson's Stage: Initiative vs. Guilt
Stage 3: Ages 3 to 6 - the challenge facing children is to function socially within their families. If children learn to get along well with siblings and parents, a sense of self-confidence should begin to grow.
Erikson's Stage: Idustry vs. Inferiority
Stage 4: Ages 6 through puberty - the challenge of learning to function socially is extended beyond the family to the broader social realm of the neighborhood and school. Children who are able to function effectively in this less nurturant social sphere should develop a sense of competence.
Erikson's Stage: Identity vs. Confusion
Stage 5: Adolescence - Who am I and where am I going?
Erikson's Stage: Intimacy vs. Isolation
Stage 6: Early Adulthood - Shall I share my life with another or live alone? Successful-promotes empathy and openness, rather than shrewdness and manipulativeness.
Erikson's Stage: Generativity vs. Self-Absobtion
Stage 7: Middle Adulthood - Will I produce something of real value? Aquire a genuine concern for the welfare of future generations, which results in providing unselfish guidance to younger people.
Erikson's Stage: Integrity vs. Despair
Stage 8: Late Adulthood - Have I lived a full life? Avoid the tendancy to dwell on the mistakes of the past and on one's imminent death.
What does Kohlberg's theory try to explain?
How youngers develop a sense of right and wrong.
Kohlberg's Stage Theory: Preconventional Level
Younger children think in terms of external authority. Acts are wrong b/c they are punished, or right b/c they are rewarded.
Kohlberg's Stage Theory: Conventional Level
Older children who have reached moral reasoning see rules as necessary for maintaining social order. They "internalize" these rules not to avoid punishment but to be virtuous and win approval from others.
Kohlberg's Theory: Postconventional Level
Adolescents work out a personal code of ethics. Acceptance of rules is less rigid, and moral thinking shows some flexibility.
How stable is personality in adulthood?
Some personality traits tend to remain stable while others tend to change systematically as people grow older.
How common are midlife crisises?
It is not typical of most people, maybe 2%-5% of people.
What is the general trend for marital satisfaction over time?
Satisfaction tends to be greatest at the beginning and end of the family life cycle, with a noticeable decline in the middle.
What kinds of factors seem to affect people's adjustment to parenthood?
-Satisfaction with parenting tends to be higher when marital quality is higher.
-Parents who are less stressed have realistic expectations about parental responsibilities.