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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The cognitive process of encoding, storing, and retrieving information.
The process by which sensory information I converted into a form that can be converted into the brains memory system
The process of maintaining information in the memory.
The active process of locating and using stored information
Sensory Memory
memory in which physical features of a stimulus are stored for very brief durations
Short-Term Memory
an immediate memory for stimuli which have been perceived. It is limited in terms of both capacity (7 + 2 chinks of information) and duration. (less than 20 seconds)
Long Term Memory
Memory in which information is represented on a permanent or near-permanent bias
Iconic memory
A form of sensory memory that holds a brief visual image of a scene that has just been perceived; also known as visual persistence.
Echoic memory
A form of sensory memory for sounds that have been perceived.
Working memory
memory for new information and information retrieved from long term
Primacy effect
The tendency to remember initial information. In the memorization in the a list of words, the primacy effect is evidenced by better recall of words early in the list.
Recency effect
The tendency to recall later information. In the memorization in a list of words, recency effect is evidence by remembering the last in a group of words.
A process by which information is simplified by rules, which make it easily remembered once the rules are learned. For example. The string of letters NBCCBSNCR is easier to remember if a person learns the rule that organizes them into smaller “chunks”: NBC, CBS, and NPR
Phonological short-term memory
- Short term memory for verbal information
Subvocal articulation
an unvoiced speech utterance
Conduction aphasia
The inability to understand words that are heard, although they usually can be understood and responded to appropriately. Disability caused by damage to Wernicke’s and Broca’s areas
The process by which information in short term memory is transferred to long term memory, presumably because of physical changes that occur in neurons in the brain
Retrograde amnesia
- Loss of ability to retrieve memory of the past, specifically memories of episodic or autobiographical events.
Maintenance rehearsal
Rote repetition of information; repeating a givin item over and over again
Elaborative rehearsal
processing information on a meaningful level, such as forming associations, attending to the meaning of material, thinking about it, and so on
Shallow processing
analysis of superficial characteristics of a stimulus, such as size or shape
Deep processing
Analysis of the complex characteristics of a stimulus, such as its meaning or its relationship to other stimuli
Effortful processing
Practicing or rehearsing information through either shallow or deep processing
Automatic processing
Forming memories of events and experiences with little or no attention or effort
Encoding specificity
The principle that how we encode information determines our ability to retrieve it later.
Mnemonic systems
A special technique or strategy consciously employed in an attempt to improve memory
Method of loci
A mnemonic system in which items to be remembered are mentally associated with physical locations or landmarks
Peg-word method
a mnemonic system in which items to be remembered are associated with a set of mental peg which are already in the memory, such as key words of a rhyme.
A mnemonic system in which items to be remembered are linked together with a story
Episodic memory
memory that can be described verbally and of which a person is therefore aware.
Implicit memory
Memory that cannot be described verbally and of which a person is not aware
Anterograde amnesia
A disorder caused by brain damage that disrupts a person’s ability to form long-term memories of events that occur after the time of brain damage
Dead reckoning
Navigation by means of internal stimuli that are used to estimate position
Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
An occasional problem with retrieval of information that we are sure we know but we can not immediately remember
Retrieval cues
Contextual variables, including physical objects, or verbal stimuli, that improve the ability to recall information from memory
the mental framework or body of knowledge that organizes and synthesizes information about a person, place, or thing
Flashbulb memories
memories established by events that are highly surprising and personally of consequence
Retroactive inference
in recall that occurs when recently learned information disrupts our ability to remember older information
Proactive interference
Interference in recall that occurs when previously learned information disrupts our ability to remember new information.