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41 Cards in this Set

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Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence
the theory of intelligence that emphasizes how we integrate various aspects of intelligence in meeting the challenges and demands of everyday life
social and educational are unlikely to close the racial gap in IQ scores
the authors of the Bell Curve argued that...
motivation
consists of the factors or internal processes that activate direct and sustain behavior toward the satisfaction of a need or attainment of a goal
instinct theory
(while this model may have value in explaining some forms of animal behavior, human behavior is too complex to be explained by instincts
proposes that behavior is motivated by genetically programmed, species-specific, fixed patterns of responses called instincts
drive theory
-asserts that animals are driven to satisfy unmet biological needs, such as hunger and thirst.
-is limited, in part because it fails to account for motives involving the desire to increase states of arousal
according to arousal theory, the optimal level of arousal varies from person to person. To maintain arousal at an optimal level, some ppl seek exciting, even potentially dangerous activities, while others seek more tranquil ones
how does arousal theory account for differences in motivational states?
incentive theory focuses on the "pull" or lure of goals or objects that we perceive as attractive, whereas drive theory focuses on the "push" of unmet biological needs
how does incentive theory differ from drive theory?
cognitive dissonance theory
holds that inconsistencies between our behavior and our attitudes, beliefs, or perceptions produce a state of psychological tension (dissonance) that motivates efforts to reconcile theses inconsistencies
psychological needs
human needs that are based on psychological rather than biological factors. (they include the need for social relationships and the need for achievement
-hard driving and ambitious
set challenging but realistic goals for themselves
-accomplish more than ppl w/ similar abilities and opportunitites but a lower need for achievement
ppl w/ a high need for achivement are...
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
-believed we are motivated to meet basic biological needs, such as hunger or thirst, b4 fulfilling out psychological needs
-has 5 levels, ranging from physiological needs @ the base to self-actualization @ the top
goal
motivation refers to factors that activate, direct,and sustain______ directed behavior
instincts
fixed, inborn patterns of response that are specific to members of a particular species
-secondary drive
-need
-a drive acquired through experience
-a state of deprivation or deficency
-homeostasis
-primary drive
-the tendency to maintain a steady internal state
-an innate biological drive
arousal
____theory helps explain individual differences in the need for sensation, as well as the relationship between arousal and performance
cognitive dissonance
discrepencies between one's attitudes and behavior can create ______ _______, an unpleasant emotional state that motivates efforts to reduce the discrepancies
actualization
@ the top of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is self ____, the need that motivates ppl to fulfill their unique potentials and become all they are capable of being
homeostatic processes in the brain regulate hunger and appetite. the hypothalamus plays a pivotal role. it senses changes in blood sugar levels and depletion of fat from fat cells, which leads to the feelings of hunger that motivate eating. Neurotransmitters and hormones also play important roles in regulating hunger and appetite
how are hunger and appetite regulated?
behavioral patterns, genetics, metabolic factors, and environmental and emotional factors
what causes obesity?
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which ppl starve themselves b/c of exaggerated concerns about weight gain
bullimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by purging. purging is accomplished through self-induced vomiting or other means, such as excessive use of laxatives
-cultural pressure on young women to achieve unrealistic standards of thinness
-issues of control and perfectionism
-childhood abuse
-family conflicts
-possible disturbances in brain mechanisms that control hunger and satiety
what are the causes of eating disorders?
the ventromedical hypothalamus signals that it is time to start eating
which of the following does not describe what happens physiologically after a person has not eaten for a while?
begins to eat even if it has just consumed a full meal
if the lateral hypothalamus in a laboratory animal is stimuulated it...
-basal metabolic rate
-leptin
-the rate @ which the body @ rest burns calories
-a hormone that reduces production of neuropeptide Y
-set point
-BMI
-a genetically predetermined range for weight
-a measure of body weight used to determine obesity
relatively high levels of serotonin in the brain
which of the following is not linked to the development of eating disorders?
-physiological component: heightened bodily arousal
-cognitive component: a feeling state, as well as thoughts and judgements about experiences linked to the feeling state
-behavioral component: approach or avoidance behaviors
what are the 3 components of emotions?
-evidence from cross-cultural studies suppors the view that facial expressions of 6 basic emotions--anger,fear,disgust,sadness,happiness, and surprise-- are universal
are facial expressions of emotion universal?
Emotions in Different Cultures
-there are both differences and similarities in how emotions are experienced in diff. cultures
-each culture has rules, called display rules, that determine how emotions are expressed and how emotion is appropriate to express.
-gender differences in emotional expression may reflect cultural expectations
-parts of the limbic system, especially the amygdala, play key roles in emotional processing
-the cerebral cortex interprets stimuli and plans strategies for either approaching or avoiding stimuli, depending on whether they are perceived as "friend" of "foe"
-the cortex also controls facial expression of emotions and is responsible for processing the felt experiences of emotions
what role do brain strucures play in emotions?
-James Lange theory: emotions occur after ppl become aware of their physiological responses to the triggering stimuli
-Cannon Bard theory: emotional and physiological reactions to triggering stimuli occus almost simultaneously
-two-factor model: emotions depend on an arousal state and a labeling of the causes of the arousal
-LeDoux's dual-pathway model of fear: the amygdala responds to fear stimuli before the cerebral cortex gets involved
what are the major theories of emotions?
-more activation of the left cerebral cortex
-a cognitive decision to be happy
-sociability
*wealth has but a modest relationship w/ personal happiness or life satisfaction. Happiness may also vary around a genetically influnced set point
what factors are assocaited w/ personal happiness?
-intimacy
-passion
-decision/commitment
what are the three components of love in Sternberg's model of love?
the polygraph
a device used to detect physiological response patterns believed to indicate when a person is lying. however, scientific evidence does not support the utility of the polygraph in detecting lying
production of neuropeptide Y
all of the following are basic components of emotion except...
Cannon-Bard theory
the belief that the subjective experience of an emotion and the bodily response that accompanies it occur @ virtually the same time is the...
anger,disgust,fear,sadness, happiness, and surprise
what are the 6 basic facial expressions that are recognized universally?
intimacy
the component in Sternberg's triangular model of love that corresponds to the desire to share one's personal feelings w/ another person is labeled ____
emotional intelligence
the ability to maanage emotions effectively can be conceptualized as a form of intelligent behavior called ____