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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Decay Theory
holds that forgetting results from the gradual deterioration of memory traces in the brain
interference theory
the belief that forgetting results from the interference of memories with each other
retroactive interference
newly aquired info interferes w/ retention of material learned earlier
proactive interference
material learned earlier interferes w/ retention of newly aquired info
retrieval theory
holds that forgetting is the result of a failure to access stored memories
Freudian belief
repression, or motivated forgetting, happens when ppl banish emotionally troubling events, impulses, and wishes from conscious awareness
recognition tasks (such as multiple-choice questions) generally produce better memory retrieval than recall tests (free recall, serial recall, or paired-associates recall) b/c they provide more retrieval cues that help jog specific memories
How is recall related to the methods used to measure it?
Amnesia (memory loss)
may be caused by psychological factors or by physical factors such as degenerative brain disesases and brain trauma.
-retrograde: loss of memory of past events
-anterograde: inability to form and store new memories
what are the 2 general types of amnesia?
according to the decay theory of memory, memory ______ in the brain fade or disappear over time
proactive interference
the type of interference that accounts for why you may forget to advance the year when writing new checks early in a new year is called _______
the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon may result from a lack of _____ cues
_____ amnesia is memory loss for past life events
follow the principle of "massed practice" when studying or memorizing
which of the following is not a helpful way to reduce the effects of interference on memory?
memories are stored within neuronal networks, the circuitry of nerve cells in the brain
where are memories stored in the brain?
it plays a key role in the formation and temporary storage of declarative memory, such as memory of events and daily experiences
what is the role of the hippocampus in memory?
LTP (long-term potentiation)
the biochemical process by which repeated stimulation strengthens the synaptic connections between nerve cells
scientists suspect that the conversion of short-term memory into long-term memory may depend on the LTP process
what role do scientists believe LTP plays in memory formation?
scientists have identified genes that appear to play important roles in biochemical processes needed for long-term memory
what have scientists learned about the genetic basis of memory?
Lashley's search for the elusive _____ led him to recognize that memories are not localized in one part of the brain
neuronal networks
researchers tody believe that memories are stored in constellations of brain cells known as ______
long-term potentiation (LTP)
the strengthening or senaptic connections that may underlie the conversion of short-term memory into long-term memory is called_______
they regulate the production of certain proteins that are critical to long-term memory
researchers are finding genetic influences in memory. how do genes influence memory functioning?
cognitive psychology
the study of thinking and other mental processes, including problem solving, language use, and information processing
the creation of mental representations of the external world and the manipulation of these representations
-logical concepts: have clearly defined rules for membership
-natural concepts: the rules for determining how they are applied are poorly defined. (ppl apply natural concepts probabilistically by judging whether something is likely to belong to a certain catergory)
what are the major types of concepts people use?
in hierarchies composed of broad to narrow categories
how are concepts organized?
superordinate, basic-level, and subordinate concepts
what are the 3 levels of concepts that one commonly used hierarchy has?
rather than relying on trial and error or a sudden insight, we can use such problem-solving strategies as algorithms, heuristics, analogies and incubation periods
what can we do to solve problems more efficiently?