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69 Cards in this Set

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Psychotherapy
Techniques employed to improve psychological functioning and promote adjustment to life
Psychoanalysis
Freudian therapy designed to bring unconscious conflicts, which usually date back to early childhood experiences, into consciousness; also Freud's theoretical school of thought empasizing unconscious processes
Free Association
In pscyoanalysis, reporting whatever comes to mind without monitoring its contents
Dream Analysis
In psychoanalysis, interpreting the underlying true meaning of dreams to reveal unconscious processes
Transference
In psychoanalysis, the patient may displace (or transfer) unconsacious feelings about a significant person in his or her life onto the therapist
Interpretation
A psychoanalyst's explanation of a patient's free associations, dreams, resistance, and transference; more generally, any statement by a therapist that presents a patient's problem in a new way
Resistance
In psychoanalysis, the person's inability or unwillingness to discuss or reveal certain memories, thoughts, motives, or experiences
Psychodynamic Therapy
A briefer, more directive, and more modern form of psychoanalysis that focuses on conscious processes and current problems
Cognitive Therapy
Therapy that focuses on faulty thought processes and beliefs to treat problem behaviors
Self-Talk
Internal dialogue; the things people say to themselves when they interpret events
Cognitive Restructuring
Process in cognitive therapy to change destructive thoughts or inappropriate interpretations
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
Ellis's cognitive therapy to eliminate self-defeating beliefs through rational examination
Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
Beck's system for confronting and changing behaviors associated with destructive cognitions
Humanistic Therapy
Therapy to maximize personal growth through affective restructuring (emotional readjustment)
Client-Centered Therapy
Roger's therapy emphasizing the client's natural tendency to become healthy and productive; techniques include empathy, unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and active listening
Empathy
In Rogerian terms, an insightful awareness and ability to share another's inner experience
Unconditional Positive Regard
Roger's term for love and acceptance with no contingencies attached
Genuineness
In Rogerian terms, authenticity or congruence; the awareness of one's true inner thoughts and feelings and being able to share them honestly with others
Active Listening
Listening with total attention to what another is saying; involves reflecting, paraphrasing, and clarifying what the person says and means
Group Therapy
A number of people meet together to work toward therapeutic goals
Self-Help Group
Leaderless or nonprofessionally guided groups in which members assist each other with a specific problem, as in Alcoholics Anonymous
Family Therapy
Treatment to change maladaptive interaction patterns within a family
Behavior Therapy
Group of techniques based on learning principles used to change maladaptive behaviors
Systematic Desensitization
A gradual process of extinguishing a learned fear (or phobia) by working through a hierarchy of fear-evoking stimuli while staying deeply relaxed
Aversion Therapy
Pairing an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus with a maladaptive behavior
Modeling Therapy
Watching and imitating models that demonstrate desirable behaviors
Biomedical Therapy
Using physiological interventions (drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychosurgery) to reduce or alleviate symptoms of psychological disorders
Psychopharmacology
The study of drug effects on mind and behavior
Antianxiety Drugs
Medications used to treat anxiety disorders
Antipsychotic Drugs
Medications used to diminish or eliminate hallucinations, delusions, withdrawal, adn other symptoms of psychosis; also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers
Antidepressant Drugs
Medications used to treat depression, some anxiety disorders, and certain eating disorders (such as bulimia)
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
Biomedical therapy based on passing electical current throught the brain; used almost exclusively to treat serious depression when drug therapy does not work
Psychosurgery
Operative procedures on the brain designed to relieve severe mental symptoms that have not responded to other forms of treatment
Lobotomy
Outmoded medical procedure for mental disorders, which involved cutting nerve pathways between the frontal lobes and the thalamus and hypothalumus
Eclectic Approach
Combining techniques from various theories to find the most appropriate treatment
Social Psychology
The study of how others influence our thoughts, feelings, and actions
Attribution
An explanation for the cause of behaviors or events
Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE)
Misjudging the causes of others' behavior as due to internal (dispositional) causes rather than external (situational) ones
Saliency Bias
Focusing on the most noticeable (salient) factors when explaining the causes of behavior
Self-Serving Bias
Taking credit for our successes and externalizing our failures
Attitude
Learned predisposition to respond cognitively, affectively, and behaviorally to a particular object
Cognitive Dissonance
A feeling of discomfort caused by a discrepancy between an attitude and a behavior or between two competing attitudes
Prejudice
A learned, generally negative, attitude toward members of a group; it includes thoughts (stereotypes), feelings and behavioral tendencies (possible discrimination)
Stereotype
A set of beliefs about the characteristics of people in a group that is generalized to all group members; also, the cognitive component of prejudice
Discrimination
Negative behaviors directed at members of a group
Ingroup Favoritism
Viewing members of the ingroup more positively than members of an outgroup
Outgroup Homogeneity Effect
Judging members of an outgroup as more alike and less diverse than members of the ingroup
Interpersonal Attraction
Positive feelings toward another
Proximity
Attraction based on geographic closeness
Need Complementarity
Attraction toward those with qualities we admire but personally lack
Need Compatibility
Attraction based on sharing similar needs
Romantic Love
Intense feeling of attraction to another within an erotic context and with future expectations
Companionate Love
Strong and lasting attraction characterized by trust, caring, tolerance, and friendship
Conformity
Changin behavior because of real or imagined group pressure
Normative Social Influence
Conforming to group pressure out of a need for approval and acceptance
Norm
Cultural rule of behavior prescribing what is acceptable in a given situation
Informational Social Influence
Confroming because of a need for information and direction
Reference Groups
People we conform to, or go along with, becaue we like and admire them and want to be like them
Obedience
Following direct commands, usually from an authority figure
Foot-in-the-Door Technique
A first, small request is used as a setup for later, larger requests
Deindividualization
Reduced self-consciousness, inhibition, and personal responsibility that sometimes occurs in a group, particularly when the members feel anonymous
Group Polarization
Group's movement toward either riskier or more conservative behavior, depending on the members' initial dominant tendency
Groupthink
Faulty decision making that occurs when a highly cohesive group strives for agreement and avoids inconsistent information
Aggression
Any behavior intended to harm someone
Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
Blocking of a desired goal (frustration) creates anger that may lead to aggression
Altruism
Actions designed to help others with no obvious benefit to the helper
Egoistic Model
Helping that's motivated by anticipated gain- later reciprocation, increased self-esteem, or avoidance of distress and guillt
Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis
Helping because of empathy for someone in need
Diffusion of Responsibility
The dilution (or diffusion) of personal responsibility for acting by spreading it among all other group members