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92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a specific claim about what the facts, once observed, will turn out to be
dependent variable
want to find out if this variable depends on some other factor-can be assessed directly
independent variable
variable whose effects are examined
control group
the group that does not undergo experimental manipulation, providing the basis for comparison
experimental group
the group introduced to experimental manipulation
experimental manipulation
introduction of a factor that is being tested in an experiment
placebo effects
effects caused by someone's belief about a drug or therapy
demand characteristics
cues in a situation signaling that one response is desirable
double-blind study
neither investigator nor subject know which is the control group
uncontrolled factors that could influence the results
observational study
study in which investigator observe key factos,rather than manipulating them directly
correlational study
the investagator observes the relation ship between the independent variable & a dependent variable
the reazon something happens, the cause of something
case study
investigators observe and then describe a single inidividual or single group
single case experiment
investigators manipulat the values of some independent variable, then asses the effects w/ in a single patient
all members of a given group
a subset of the population investigators are interested in
random sample
every member of the population has an equal chance of being picked
stratified sample
each subgroup of the population is porportionate in size in the sample population
random assignment
participants assigned randomly to the eperimental or control group
within-subject design
compare the same subjects before and after
counter balancing
make the confound have a balanced effect on both of the conditions
transcranial magnetic stimulation
repeated magnetic stimulation at the surgace of the skull used to stimulate a region of the brain and cause a temporary lesion
part of the hindbrain that controls respiration circulation, balance and protective reflexes
neuroimaging techniques
methods that permit noninvasive study and pecition of brain strucuture or function
top most portion of hte hindbrain
-involved in facial sensations/muscular actions and regulating sleep and arousal
an influence that has an activating or excitatory effects on brain/bodily functions
in temporal lobe
role in emotion and evaluation of stimuli
2 ssmall hemispheres tat make up the hindbrain
-controll muscular coordination and equilibrium
for endocrine system
limbic system
interconected subcortical strucures
-emotional and motivation activities, learning and memory
outermost layer of an orgain in the body
-base of forebrain
-NAS, endocrine system, major biological drives
major source of energy for body tissues
stored energy derived from glucose
record of the summed activity of cortical cells picked up by wires placed on the skull
REM rebound
tendency to spend more time in REM if deprived in previous nights
signal detection theory
act of perceiving a stimulus is a judgement about whether a memomentary sensory experience is due to background noise alone or background noise plus a signal
-measure for sensory sensitivity
understanding perception that relates the physical stimuli to the attributes of sensory experience they produce
procss by qhich a receptor reacts to some physical stimulus and creates action potentials in another neuron
psychological dimension of sound that corresponds to frequency
-coiled structure in innear ear
-contains basilar membrane whose deformation by sound-produced pressure stimulates auditory receptors
taut membrane that transmits vibrations caused by sound waves across the middle to the inner ear
auditory canal
tube that carries sound from outer ear to eardrum
place theory
different regions of the basilarmembrane respond to different sound frequencies, interpereted by nervous system as different pitches
frequency theory
perception of a tone's picth is coded by the rate of firing of neurons in the auditory systems
-correct for low pitches, wrong for high pitches
distances between the 2 crests of 2 sucessive waves
-major determinant for pitch and hue
eye's transparent outer coating
portion of the eye that bends light rays and can focus and image on the retina
visual-pigment-filled light-sensitive cell at the back of the retina
-cone or rod
-transudece light energy into neural impulses
-back of the interior of the eye
-contains photoreceptors, several layers of intermediate neurons, and cel bodies of axons of the optic nerve
photoreceptors i the retina that responed to lower light intnsities and give rise to achromatic (colorless) sensations
visual receptors that respond to greater light intensities and giver rise to chromatic sensations
contrast effects
things look much brighter on a dark background/when closer together
area of retina on which an image falls when viewer is looking driectly at the source of the image
-most acute
optic nerve
bundle of fibers that proceeds from each beyeball to the brain
-axons w/ cell bodies that are retinal ganglion cells
sensory adaption
getting used to a stimuli
pervieved dimesnion of visual stimuli whose meaning is close to the term coloer
lateral inhibition
tendency of advacent neural images to inhibit each other
negative afterimage
-color vision
-persistance of image that posses the hue complementary to that stimulus
(yellow after staring at a blue lamp)
opponent-process theory
1. Ecitation of one member pair automatically inhibits another (red/green; blue/yellow; white/black)
2. nervous system tends to courter act any dviation from the neutral point on pain-pleasure dimmension
Young-Hemholtz theory
color vision
each of 3 receptor types (short, medium, and long wave) gives rise to the experience of one basic color (blue, green, or red)
auditory ossicle
3 bone sof the midle ear that transmit vibrations form eardrum to oval window
blind spot
region of retina that has no visual receptors
feature detection
neurons n retina/brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus (movement, orientation, ect)
hair cells
auditory receptors in the cochlea, between basilar membrane and other membranes avove
binocular disparity
eye obtains a different view of an object, the disparity becoming less pronouces the farther away the onject is
apparent movement
flashing makes it look likes its moving
induced movement
moving frameowkr makes it look like its moving
perceptual parsing
group of various visual elements of a scene, desiding which go together
reversible figures
visual patterns that allow multiple interpretation, ie changing figure and ground
closeness of 2 figures, that makes them be grouped together perceptually
good continuation
conturs seen in a way that their direction is altered as little as possible
feature net
pattern of recogniction wh/ a network of detectors, w/ feature detectors @ the bottom
advance knowledge can increase the ease of recall
cocktail part effect
tune into the voice of one taking, filter out other voices as background noise
dichotic listening
1 stimulus to each ear, only one is attended to
size constancy
percieve obects as retaining their size, even when they moved away and the image on the reitina is smaller
shape constancy
retain shape despite different angle produced on retina
unconcious interferance
explains size constancy-Hemholtz
depth of processing
deeper levels of processing leads to better meaning over sound)
memory span
number of items that can be recalled after 1 presentation
trying to rember somethin
working memory
activate part that has little cognitive capacity
deliberate strateges for helping memroy, many use imagery
forgetting curve
inverse relationship between memory and retention interval
method of loci
-mnemonic technique
-requires learner to visualize item to remeber in a differet spacial localtion
-mentally inspect for item placed there for recall
repressed memories
memory so anxiety laden it has been pused out of conciousness
flashbulb memories
-vivid, detailed
-produced by unexpected/emotional events
remains of the verge of retrieving a word or name, but unsucessful
declarative knowledge
knowing that (ie someone's name)
procedrual knowledge
knowing how to do something