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24 Cards in this Set

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Crystallized vs. Fluid Intelligence
Crystallized (Gc) refers to acquired knowledge/skills while Fluid Intelligence (Gf) enables a person to solve novel problems.
Heredity: how muich does it influence intelligence?
studies comparing level of heredity suggest that both genes and environment influence intelligence; note that the correlation for identical twins reared together is about .85 while the correlation for biolgical siblings reared together is .45
What's the role of the environment on intelligence?
Higher IQ scores are correlated with higher SES, and there is some evidence that cognitive functioning can substantially improve with enriching the environment.
What is the Flynn effect?
IQ tests scores have consistently increased over the past 70 yrs, with an increase of about 3 pts per decade. This is primarily due to increases in fluid intelligence, and changes in the environment.
What is the stability of intelligence over the lifespan?
Before age 7 there is little stability. Depending on methodology different findings have been reached. Fluid intelligence typically begins to decline in the 20s while Crystalized increases until about age 60. Older adults are more likely to score lower only on perceptual speed.
Several experts argue that cognitive ability tests are biased. Explain how they might be biased?
1. slope bias = when there is differential validity and intercept bias between groups. Consequently the predictor is more accurate for one group than another.; 2) predictor bias = when the mean scores on the predictor differ for different groups and this is unfair as one group may be consistenly under-performing
Stanford Binet 5th Edition
Appropriate for individuals 2 to 85 plus; based on hierarchical g model derived from Catell-Horn-Carroll
WAIS-III
Reflects the view of intelligence as a global construct;
VP Discrepancy
A discrepancy of more than 12 points is signicant
Curriculum Based Measurement
periodic assessment of school-aged children with brief standardized and validated measures of baic academic skills that reflect current school curriculum
Big 5 Personality Traits
Openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuoticism
Differential validity
when a test or other precdictor has substantially different validity coefficients for members of different groups -- this is one cause of adverse impact
Infant and Preschool tests
generally considered valid for screening for developmental delays and disbility; but they have little predictive validity
Kaufman Assessment Battery For Children
because of its emphasis on nonverbal instructions, it is considered culture fair
Kuder
developed on the basis of empirical criterion keying. unlike the strong tests, it did not include a general reference group but instead only included items on teh test that distinguised between different occupational groups
MMPI-2 T Scors and Profile Analysis
Scores are reportred as T scores, which have a mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10. A T score of 65 or higher on the MMPI is considered clinically significant.
MMPI Validity Scales
High L = an attempt to present one's self as overly positive; High F = carelessness; high K = "fake good"
The K scale score is used to correct several clinical scale scores
Raven's Progressive Matrices
Nonverbal measure of intelligence & is considered mulitculturally sensitive as it is relatively independent of specific of education and cultural influences.
Rorschach Inkblot Test
Projective personality test that entails free association and inquiry
Seattle Longitudinal Study
found that cross-sectional methodology is more likely to find age-related declines in IQ bc of confounding cohort effects; only perceptual speed declines substantially prior to age 60
Stroop Color-Word Association Test
asesses the degree to which the examinee can supress a habitual response
Types of test bias: slope and intercept
1) slope is the when there is differential validity (i.e., when the validity coefficients for a predictor differ for different groups; 2) Intercept bias is when unfairness occurs with the mean scores on the predictor differing by group
Vineland
measures social and personal skills and is needed in conjunction with IQ testing for the diagnosis of mental retardation
Wisconsin Card Sort
for individuals age 6-1/2 to 80 and is used to assess the ability to form abstract concepts