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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Discriminative stimulus
stimulus that signals presence of particular contingencies of reinforcement
Central Executive
decides what is important to remember
Dysexecutive Syndrome
forgetful but no long-term memory impairment
Phonological Loop
words stored in order based on sound, not meaning
Visio-spatial sketchpad
temporary image person can hold for 20-30 seconds
Which schedule of reinforcement is best to maintain behavior for a long time w/ rapid rate of responding
variable ratio schedules
Primary reinforcer
innately reinforce behavior w/o learning ex: food, water, sex
Secondary reinforcer
originally neutral stimulus that becomes reinforcing by having paired w/ primary reinforcers (good grades)
shaping
produces novel behavior
chaining
putting together a sequence of existing responses in novel order
According to levels of processing theory, which types of processing enhance long-term memory retention
semantic level
Retroactive interference
new info interferes w/ retrieval of old information
Proactive interference
interference of prev. stored memories w/ retrieval of new information
What is the best schedule of reinforcement to teach new behavior?
continuous reinforcement schedule
What happens when you first begin to use operant extinction to get someone to stop doing something?
extinction bursts; sudden increase in frequent behavior
Is it more effective to use positive or negative punishment repeatedly over long periods of time?
negative punishment
How much info is stored in working memory, sensory memory and ltm?
Working-7 pieces of info
Sensory-picture, sounds
LTM-infinite amount
Difference between internal and external locus of control
internal-people are master's of their life
external-belief that one's lives are determined by forces outside themselves
Spreading activation
activating one node in a network triggers activation in closely related nodes
Difference between implicit and explicit memory
explicit-conscious
implicit-not require conscious recollection, evident in skills, conditioned learning
Difference between retrospective and prospective memory
retro-memory for things in past
prospective-memory for things tha tneed to be done in future
Spontaneous Recovery
reemergence of previously extinguished conditioned response
Stimulus Discrimination
Learned tendence to respond to a restricted range of stimuli used during training
Stimulus generalization
May respond to stimulus that resemble CS w/ similar response
Prepared learning
biologically wired readiness to learn associations more easily than others
Locus of control
Generalized expectancies people hold about whether or not their own behavior can bring about outcomes they seek
Operant conditioning
learning to operate on environment to produce a consequence
Punishment
decreases the probability the behavior will occur
After brain damage, is it common to lose long-term memories but to have an intact working memory?
no
Eidetic memory
photographic memory
Which schedule of reinforcement is best to maintain slow but continuous behavior for a long time
fixed interval
3 components of working memory
central executive, visual memory, verbal memory
Who discovered classical conditioning?
Ivan Pavlov
Who coined the term operant conditioning?
B.F. Skinner
Premack Principle
granting access to activities that are otherwise freely chosen is highly reinforcing
retrieval
recovering info from LTM
Escape learning
behavior is reinforced by elimination of aversive state of affairs that already exist ex:sunbather puts sunblock on sunburn pain
Avoidance learning
organism learns to prevent an expected aversive event from happening
Continuous reinforcement
consequence is same each time animal emits a behavior
Social learning
learn from people around w/ or w/o reinforcement
modeling
observational learning in which person learns to reproduce behavior exhibited by model
Vicarious conditioning
person learns consequence of action by observing its consequences for someone else
Tutelage
teaching concepts of procedures through verbal explanation or instruction
Decay theory
explains forgetting as result of fading memory trace
Encoding
cast into a representational form or code that can be readily accessed
State-dependent memory
being in similar mood at encoding and retrieval can facilitate learning
context-dependent memory
context in which people encode and retrieve information