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44 Cards in this Set

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monadic bias
it's easier to study individuals than to study relationships
reasons for studying relationships and not merely individuals
conceptual, functional, empirical
conceptual reasons
relating to specific ideas or concepts: "there is an inherent need to belong"
functional reasons
what role relationships play in life, etc. (to learn about their function)
empirical reasons
used in examples where individual phenomena simply can't be explained without reference to relationships
The Scientific Method
theory, hypothesis, observations
privation vs. deprivations
privation=never had it to begin with
deprivation=had it and then it was taken away
Self Report Method (2 types)
structured interview, structured questionnaire
Clinical Interview Method
semi-structured interview (follow-up questions)
Observational Method
naturalistic or structured observations
Microanalytic coding: Expressive Behavior method
decode facial movements
Physiological/Biological method
cortisol level, sweat, blood pressure
Detecting Associations method
1)correlational designs 2)experimental designs; detect statistical relations by either showing group differences or showing that two or more variables are associated with one another
Cross-sectional design
observe behaviors of couples of different ages at the same time
Longitudinal
follow same couples across time
convergent validity
test results are similar to another test's results that was meant to measure the same thing
discriminant validity
test results are different from another test's results that was meant to measure something different
ecological validity
experiment setting is similar to that of the real world
distinguishable dyads
can distinguish dyad members by some variable (or trait); husband and wife, younger brother and older brother
nondistinguishable dyads
can't distinguish dyad members by any variable (same sex partners, same sex twins, same sex friends)
actor partner interdependence model
one person's response to a variable not only affects their own result but also their partner's
exchange orientation
cost and benefit relationhip; strangers, acquaintances
communal orientation
one person has an obligation to care for the other; parents, spouse
2 functions of attachment
1)secure base
2)safe haven
attachment theory is not deterministic, but rather...
probabilistic
secure base
you feel safe going away and knowing you have someone to come back to
safe haven
when you feel threatened or upset you have someone to go to
in harlow's drive reduction study the cloth monkeys always went to..
the cloth monkey
anxious/resistant attachment
don't explore, unable to be settled by caregiver, seeks but resists comfort
anxious/avoidant attachment
avoids caregiver upon reunion after stressful separation
asocial phase
0-6 weeks; don't respond to parents as being special in any way
phase of indiscriminant attachments
6 weeks-7 mos.; anyone in environment might be targeted as attachment
specific attachment phase
7-9 mos.
phase of multiple attachment
9 mos.+ ; development of hierarchy of attachment figures
sensitivity hypothesis
security is created by sensitive caregiving
universality hypothesis
all human infants develop specific attachments (emotional connections) with their primary caregiver
normativity hypothesis
most infants develop effective bonds involving the ability to use primary caregiver as a secure base and a safe haven
secure base/competence hypothesis
secure attachments foster exploration of the external environment
q-set
observe kids in a natural setting
sensitivity hypothesis
security is created by sensitive caregiving
universality hypothesis
all human infants develop specific attachments (emotional connections) with their primary caregiver
normativity hypothesis
most infants develop effective bonds involving the ability to use primary caregiver as a secure base and a safe haven
secure base/competence hypothesis
secure attachments foster exploration of the external environment
q-set
observe kids in a natural setting