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35 Cards in this Set

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What is the psych triad

think, feel, behave

What are the 5 basic approaches and briefly describe them

trait: how ppl differ psychologically


biological: understand mind in term of body


psychoanalytical: unconscious mind


phenomenological: conscious experience of world


-humanisitic: human attributes


-cross cultural: things different in cultures


learning and cognitive processes approach


-behaviours, punishments, rewards

What does pigeonholing mean

emphasize how ppl are different from one another

What are 4 types of observations Henry Murray stated, what are adv and dis

S data-ask person directly


-adv: face validity, large amounts of info, access to feelings, truth, causal force, simple, easy


-dis: wont tell you, cant tell you (fish in water effect), overused,




I Data-ask somebody who knows


-adv: large amount of info, real world bias, have common sense and context, truth, causal force (expectancy effect)


-dis: limited behavioural info, lack access to private experiences, error in memory, error in remembering extremes, bias




L data: life outcomes


-adv:objective and verifiable, intrinsic importance, psychological varibables


-dis: multidetermination




B data: watch person in lab


-adv: range of contexts, appearance of objectivity


-dis: difficult and expensive, uncertain interpretation



what is efficacy expectations


what is expectancy effect

the type of person u think u are has important effects on the goals that you set




ppl become what others expect them to be

Facebook provides accurate data on what 3 traits, but not for 1 trait

openness, extraversion, agreeableness


not neuroticism

What type of characteristics can u tell from ppl based on their room

conscientous, curious ppl




cant tell if theyre extraversion

What are behaviouroids

ppl report what they think they would do under various circumstances

What are 4 things that undermine reliability

low precision


state of participant varies


state of experimenter


enviro of study

4 ways to enhance reliability

be careful


constant procedure


measure something important


averaging is most readily

spearman brown formula

random influences tend to cancel one another out

Limits to generalizability

gender bias


shows vs no shows


ethnic and cultural diversity

Explain 3 research designs and their adv and dis

Case method


-adv: well detailed


-dis: cant be generalized




Experimental


-adv: manipulation focuses results,


-dis: dont know exactly what u manipulate, made extremes that are artificial, require deception




Correlational


-adv: naturally occurring pop


-dis: third variable problem (unmeasured variable affects exp), dont know direction of causality

What are the 4 key ideas of psychoanalysis

psychic determinism


internal structure


psychic conflict and compromise


mental energy

what is the principle of conservation of energy




what is doctrine of opposites

energy used for one thing is taken away from another things




everything requires its opposite and cant exist without the other

In the oral stage, explain the psych theme and adult characteristic

dependency


oral character: obession, discomfort


one end is independent souls, other is passive inds who wait for everything

Anal stage, explain psych theme and adult characteristic


what are the terrible twos

self control and obedience




personality becomes organized around control issues


-one end: obsessive, stingy, orderly


-no self control, chaotic, disorganized




children test boundaries of parents after order was given





Phallic stage, explain psych theme and adult characteristic


what 2 things develop in this stage

gender identity and sexuality




-one end, rigid moral code, asexual


-other lacks moral code, promiscuous




dvlp of morality and sexuality

Genital stage, whats the psych theme


mental health is what


whats the physical focus

maturity


to love and to work


genitals, process of reproduction

What are 2 examples of parapraxes

slips and forgetting

Whats transference and countertransference

alliance grows this way, brings ways of thinking and feeling that developed toward one person to another person




therapist reacts to the patient postively or negatively

What are 3 themes of neo-freudian thought

sex is less important


less emphasis on unconscious mental processes


less emphasis on instincts

What is organ inferiority

someone who felt weak as a child will strive for physical strength as an adult

What is masculine protest

compensation of feeling power for feeling inadequate or inferior as a child

What did Horney doing

women overcome basic anxiety as a child which is fear of being alone and helpless in a hostile world




these are needs ppl feel but are not realistic or desirable

What did erickson say about the following freud concepts




Oral


Anal


Phallic


Latency


Genital

Trust vs mistrust




autonomy vs shame and doubt




initiative vs guilt




industry vs inferiority




identity vs confusion, intimacy vs isolation, integrity vs despair

What are 4 themes of the object relations theory with Klein and Winnicott

every rlsp has elements of satisfaction and frustration




mix of love and hate




distinction bw the parts of the love object and whole




psyche of the baby and adults is aware of and disturbed

Whats the difference bw paranoid position and depressive position

destroy bad things out of fear it will destroy you




worship the good out of fear of losing it

Winnicott: got ideas from a cloth called _____


These objects are called ______

niffle


transitional objects

What is parallel distributed processing

mind does many things at once but only a small fraction of its activity becomes conscious

What was bowlbys theory of attachment

patterns of rlps with others taht are consistently repeated with different partners throughout life

What do working models of others and self mean

with attachment, infants develop expectations of how others can be expected to react call working models of others and how he expects himself to feel and behave called working model of self

Mary ainsworth did what exp


What are the 3 types of children and their house they grew up in


-describe some characteristics about their personality

strange situation


Separate child from mom then reunited


Anxious-ambivalent children: had inconsistent homes


-gets upset when they leave


-extreme jealousy, low self esteem, parents are unfair




avoidant children: denied attempts to enjoy contact with loved ones


-dont look stressed when mom leaves but heart rate increases, when mom returns they ignore her


-hostile and defiant, uninterested in romance,


-dont share personal info, hate those who do




secure children; confident faith in parents and self


-when mom returns, greet her nicely


-easily soothed, sure of parents support

What are characteristics of those who have high anxiety, high avoidance, or high in both

high anxiety: loved ones wont be there, extreme vigilance




high avoidance: distrust ppl and maintains independence and emotional distance




both: dont pay attention to any signs of emotion from another person

when flashed harmful words subliminally, what do ppl think of

those who are significant to them