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39 Cards in this Set

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The ___is a structure that separates the inside of a cell from the outside.
membrane
A ___is the structure that contains the chromosomes.
nucleus
The ___is a structure where the cell performs metabolic activities.
mitochondrion
___are sites at which the cell synthesizes new protein molecules.
Ribosomes
The __ ___is a network of thin tubes that transport newly synthesized proteins to other locations.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
The ___ ___contains the nucleus and other structures found in most cells.
cell body
___are branching fibers that recieve info and sends it to the cell body.
Dendrites
An ___is a thin fiber that sends info from the cell body to the pre-synaptic terminals.
axon
The ____ ____is an insulating material covering axons in many neurons; it speeds up communication along the axon.
Myelin Sheath
The ___ ___is the endpoint on the axon that releases chemicals.
Presynaptic Terminal
An __axon carries info away from a structure.
efferent
An ___neuron brings info into a structure.
afferent
An ___(also known as an ___neuron)conveys info only to immediately adjacent neurons.
intrinsic neuron
The ___of dendrites determines its connections with other neurons.
branching
Name five types of glial cells?
astrocytes,microglia,oligodendrocytes, shwann cells, and radial glia
___remove waste material from a neuron, including dead neurons.
Astrocytes.
___remove wastes, viruses, and microorganisms.
Microglia
___are located in the CNS and produce myelin sheaths for axons.
Oligodendrocytes
__cells are located in the PNS. They produce and repair myelin sheaths for axons. They also guide regenerating axons to target.
Schwann cells
____glia are a type of astrocyte. They guide the migration of neurons. They guide the growth of axons and dendrites during embryonic development.
Radial glia
___cells if capillary walls are joined tightly to form the blood-brain barrier.
Endothelial cells
___is the primary energy source for the brain.
Glucose
The vitamin ___is necessary for the use of glucose.
Thiamine
Prolonged thiamine deficiency can lead the the death of neurons and ___syndrome.
Korsokoff's syndrome
Neurons communicate through ____that travel along the axon 10 to 100 meters per second.
impulses
___ ___of the neuron

-electrical gradient of ___ exists between inside and outside of neuron because there is far more sodium outisde than inside.
Resting Potential; -70 mV
___ ___: NA+ more concentrated outside cell and K+ more concentrated inside cell.

-maintained by a ___ ___ ___that pumps 3 NA+ ions out of cell for every 2 K+ ions in.
concentration gradient; sodium-potassium pump.
Why a resting potential?
-electrical gradient and ion concentrations prepare neuron to ___ ___to stimulus.
respond rapidly
resting potential is maintained after ___ ____.
slight stimulation
___:increase in the negative charge inside the neuron; returns to rest after small increase.
hyperpolarization
___:decrease in the negative charge inside the neuron; returns to rest after small decrease.
depolarization
__ ___: stimulation beyond a certain level crosses the threshold of excitation and produces a sudden, massive ____of the membrane.

-rapid depolarization continues to about ___ and then returns rapidly to its resting potential.
Action Potential; depolarization

+30mV
The ____:
-the size, amplitude, and velocity are independent of the intensity of the stimulus that initiated it.
all-or-none law
With slight depolarization, sodium channels ___ ___.
open slightly
-With slight depolarization, sodium channels ___ ___.
-once threshold is reached, sodium channels open wide and NA+ ions _________.
-at the peak of the action potential, ___ ____ ___ and cannot be opened again for the next millisecond or so.
open slightly; rush into the cell; sodium channels close
__ ___: open wide as the action potential approaches its peak allowing K+ ions to flow out of the cell.
-cell becomes ____and overshoots resting membrane potential, and then returns to -70 mV.
Potassium channels; hyperpolarized.
Immediately after an action potential, the neuron enters a ____ ___and resists producing more action potentials.
refractory period
____refractory (~1ms)
-the sodium gates are firmly closed.
-the membrane cannot produce an action potential, regardless of the stimulation.
absolute
___refractory periods (another 2-4 ms)
-the sodium gates are reverting to their usual state, but the potassium gates remain open.
relative refractory periods