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176 Cards in this Set

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survey
100 people is optimal, can gather large amounts of info but cannot determine cause and effect, biased sample possible, response bias possible (social desirability bias) and questions can skew answers
naturalistic observation
subjects don't know they're being observed, can gather info in usual setting as it NATURALLY occurs, cannot determine cause-effect and observer bias is possible
experiment
can determine cause-effect, can manipulate variables and controls, sampling errors can occur, hard to generalize real world
case study
in depth studies on individuals, intense info gathered but cannot determine cause-effect, expensive and time consuming, not good for generalizing, biased sample
longitudinal study
study same group of subjects over time at different ages
cross-sectional study
study different groups of people at different ages at same point in time
random sampling
must get sample representative of gerneral population
hypothesis
statement about relationship between 2 variables that must be testable
replication
experiment should be able to be replicated with same results to be reliable
correlation
correlation does NOT prove causation, + and - correlations; +: as feet grow, vocab increases, -: as do drugs, test scores decrease
control group
comparison of results, no variables introduced
experimental group
what is being tested, the variable
double-blind study
neither experimentor nor participants know to which group they belong
placebo
psuedo treatment
Pavlov
behaviorist, classical conditioning
Wundt
father of psychology, first psych lab, introspection, biological psychology
Darwin
evolutionary theory, natural selection
Freud
psychoanalytic theory, stages of psychosexual development
Skinner
behaviorist, operant conditioning
Watson
behaviorist, classical conditioning
cognitive theory
how mental thoughts affect behavior, how pepole think, remember, and percieve
psychoanalytic theory
all behavior is meaninful and controlled by idgging below the surface to uncover the roots of personality
behaviorist theory
expanded psych into many groups that could not be studied by intospection, all behavior is observable and measurable
humanistic theory
emphasizes free will, people not ruled completely by environment or past experience, rising to full human potential
socio-cultural theory
examines how cultural, political, religious, etc. experiences affect our everyday life, gender influences behavior, job opportunities influence goals and ambitions
neurobiological theory
all actions and feelings associated with the nervous system
false-consensus effect
belief that more people agree with us then actually do
hindsight bias
tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have forseen it
confirmation bias
tendency to search for info that confirms our preconceptions
social loafing
tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their effors for a common goal then when individually accountable
diffusion of responsibility
we feel less responsible for helping if others are around then if we are alone
clinical psychology
diagnose, treat, and study mental or emotional problems and disabilities; interview, test, therapy
developmental psychology
study how people change and grow over time physically, mentally, and socially
psychiatrists
practice medicine concerned with mental disorders, maladjustment and abnormal behavior, can prescribe drugs
industrial-organizational psychologist
concerned with group decision making, employee morale, work motivation productivity, stress, personnel, selection, marketing strategies, and product design
dendrites
catch neurotransmitter
synapse
space through wich neurotransmitters travel to the next neuron
axons
path neurotransmitters travel down
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers
myelin sheath
insulation, allows impulse to travel faster
vesicles
release neurotransmitters into synapse
threshold
all or nothing principle, neuron either will or won't fire
central nervous system
made up of brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
made up of somatic and autonomic nervous system
somatic nervous system
voluntary skeletal muscles and sensory receptors
afferent nerves
part of somatic NS, go inward to CNS
efferent nerves
part of somatic NS, go outward from CNS
autonomic nervous system
involuntary and automatic, includes sypathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
sympathetic nervous system
emergencies, part of autonomic NS
parasympathetic nervous system
conserves body resources, part of autonomic NS
endocrine system
glands that secrete chemicals to help keep body functioning
hormones
chemical substances released by the endocrine glands
endorphins
opiate effects, reduce pain, promote pleasure
pituitary gland
produces growth hormones and fight or flight responses
MRI
uses magnetic fields, radio waves, and computerized enhancement to map out brain structure
PET
examine brain function, mapping activity over time
CT/CAT scan
computerized x-ray of brain structure in horizontal slices
frontal lobe
motor
occipital lobe
vision
temporal lobe
auditory
parietal
touch
Broca's area
role in speech production
Wernicke's area
role in speech comprehension
hippocampus
part of limbic system involved with learning and memory
hypothalamus
regulation of basic biological functions, 4 fs
amygdala
part of limbic system involved in emotion, agression, and fear
reticular formation
screens and filters incoming info, arouses higher centers when something happens to demand their attention
cerebellum
coordination of movement and sense of equilibrium (balance)
medulla
life support functions such as breathing and heart rate
corpus collosum
connects the 2 hemispheres of the brain
right brain
visual-spatial tasks
left brain
logic, math, language
corpus collosum
connects the 2 hemispheres of the brain
fantasy prone personality
4% of population, spend up to half the day daydreaming
circadian rhythm
regular body changes that occur every 24 hours, thinking most accurate at peak
alpha waves
awake but in a relaxed state
beta waves
rapid brain waves, awake
theta waves
ligh sleep
delta waves
deep sleep
REM
dream sleep, relatively paralyzed, rapid sleep waves
NREM
all stages of sleep, no dreaming, deeper sleep, incubus attacks can occur
manifest content
storyline of dream
latent content
interpretation of dream
narcolepsy
fall asleep instantly into deep sleep
insomnia
persistent problems in falling asleep
sleep apnea
frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep
REM rebound
increase in REM sleep after sleep deprived
dissociation
splitting off of mental processes into 2 seperate, simultaneous streams of awakeness
post-hypnotic amnesia
suggestions during hypnosis can influence subject's later behavior
marijuana
stimulant, relaxed state, altered perception, increased awareness
LSD
hallucinagen, euphoria, hallucinations, increased sensory awareness
cocaine
stimulant, increase in energy, excitement, reduced fatigue
nicotine
stimulant, relaxation, stress relieval
alcohol
depressant, anxiety reduction, lowering of inhibitions
selective attention
focusing of attention on selected aspects of the environment and the blocking out of others (aka cocktail party effect)
interposition
when an object is placed in between another object and the viewer, the smaller object is farther away
relative clarity
hazy objects pervieved as farther away
relative height
objects higher in field of vision appear father away
linear perspective
lines appear to converge in the distance
proximity
things near each other tend to be grouped together
closure
brain fills in gaps to complete forms
continuity
lines and patterns tend to be percieved as continuing in time and space
perceptual set
your values and bias shape perception
perceptual adaptation
repetitious stimuli disappear
sensation
processing and encoding physical info from the environment
perception
process by which brain organizes sensory inof and assembles it into meaningful patterns
top-down processing
use prior knowledge to fill in blanks
bottom-up processing
use basics to build up whole
telepathy
reading someone's mind
clairvoyance
knowing something without being there
psychokinesis
moving objects with your mind
precognition
predicting the future
subliminal perception
registering of sensory input without conscious awareness
difference thresholds
difference in stimulation you can noticebly detect when 2 stimuli are compared
trichromatic theory
all colors of light made up of 3 colors, retina contains only 3 types of cones - red, blue and green
opponent process theory
visual system treats various pairs of colors as opposing, when fatigued, opposite color cannot be coded at same time
cochlea
snail shaped, fluid filled, inner ear, contains hearing receptors
basilar membrane
interior of cohlea, causes wave-like motion in fluid that cause hair to move
decibels
measure of intensity(or amplitude)
kinesthesis
sense of one's body position and movement of body parts, uses pain and pleasure receptors in muscles and joints, helps with voluntary movement
sensory interaction
senses influence each other
absolute threshold
minimum threshold needed for detection 50% of the time
classical conditioning
learning in which a stimulus acquires the capactity to evoke a response(an involuntary one)that was originally evoked by another stimulus.
acquisition
initial stage of learning during which a response is established and gradually strengthened
extinction
a resopnse that is no longer reinforced will stop
spontaneous recovery
reappearance of an extinguished, conditioned response after rest period
stimulus discrimination
ability to distinguish between stimuli
stimulus generalization
response that forms specific stimulus to others that resemble the original
positive reinforcement
something pleasant follows response
negative reinforcement
response strengthened by avoiding of something unpleasant
primary reinforcement
something necessary for survival as reward
secondary reinforcement
something that can be used to get something for survival
punishment
weakening response with something unpleasant
fixed ratio schedule
reinforcement after act performed certain amount of times
variable ratio schedule
reinforcement after act performed a variable number of times
fixed interval schedule
reinforcement after a certain amount of time
variable interval schedule
reinforcement after a variable amount of time
observational learning
organisms's responding is influenced by the observation of others
modeling behavior
modeling behavior after respected or authority or liked figures
cognitive learning
involves higher mental processes, more complex then simple response to stimuli
prisoner's dilemma
choice between cooperative act and selfish one
commoner's dilemma
overuse of common resource makes it unavailable
groupthink
desire for harmony overrides realism
group polarization
enhancement of group's prevailing attitudes through discussion
cognitive dissonance
when tension exists when people's attitudes don't match their actions
central route to persuasion
putting in time and effort necessary to make an educated choice
peripheral route to persuasion
random and inconsequential factors taken into consideration
iconic memory
momentary snsory memory of visual image, less then 1 sec
echoic memory
momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 sec
short term memory
working memory, holds items for a few sec - few min, limited in capactiy, magic # is 7 + or - 2
long term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system
mnemonic device
way to remember something with acronym or the like
chunking
organizing items into familiar, managable units, often occurs automatically
method of loci
imagine oneself going through a series of locations, associating each with a visual representation
rehersal
important for encoding (repeating info)
encoding
process of transforming info effectively into memory
storage
retention of encoding info over time
retrieval
getting info out of memory
effortful processing
study and rehearse material to store it
automatic processing
don't realize memorizing, effortless
representative heuristics
tendency to make decisions or judge info that fits our preconcieved notions or stereotypes of a situation
availability heuristic
basing estimated probabliity of an event on the case with which relevant instances come to mind
fundamental attribution error
attribute others' actions to internal factors and their own to external factors
internal attribution
quality within a person
external attribution
outside force
retroactive interference
when a person has difficulty with old information because of newly learned information
proactive interference
when a person has difficulty learning new information because of old information
serial position effect
tendency to recall info that is 1st and last better then that in the middle
concept
mental grouping of similar things, events and people used to remember
heuristic
rule of thumb strategy for making more efficient decisions
prototype
the best example of cognitive representation of something within a certain category
insight
sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
functional fixedness
narrow and limited thinking about objects, concepts, and people
source amnesia
at the root of many false memories, one of the frailest part of memory
retrograde amnesia
loss of memories for events that occured before a head injury
anterograde amnesia
cannot encode new memories but can recall events that are already in your memory