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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Learning in which certain events occur together
Associative learning
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
Classical conditioning
The view that psychology
1: should be an objective science and
2: studies behavior without reference to mental processes
Behaviorism
A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
Learning
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning
Neutral stimulus (NS)
In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned response (UR)
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally--naturally and automatically--triggers a response
Unconditioned stimulus (US)
In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
Conditioned response (CR)
In classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that comes to trigger a conditioned response
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
In classical conditioning, the initial stage when links occur between the NS and CS
Acquisition
A procedure in which the CS is paired with a new NS, creating a second (often weaker) CS.
Higher-order conditioning
The diminishing of a conditioned response
Extinction
The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
Spontaneous recovery
The tendency for stimuli similar to the CS to elicit similar responses
Generalization
In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal a US
Discrimination
In operant conditioning, a cage with a bar that an animal manipulates to get food/water
Operant chamber
An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
Shaping
In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Reinforcer
Increasing behaviors by presenting a reward, such as food
Positive reinforcement
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing an undesired stimulus
Negative reinforcement

This is NOT punishment
An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
Primary reinforcer
A stimulus that reinforces via its association with a primary reinforcer
Conditioned reinforcer
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
Continuous reinforcement
Reinforcing a response only part of the time
Partial (intermittent) reinforcement
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
Fixed-ratio schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
Variable-ratio schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
Fixed-interval schedule
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
Variable-interval schedule
An event that decreases the behavior it follows
Punishment
A mental representation of the layout of one's environment
Cognitive map
Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
Latent learning
Learning by watching others
Observational learning
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
Modeling
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so
Mirror neurons
Positive, constructive, helpful behavior
Prosocial behavior