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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the Health Belief Model?
1. Severity of consequences
2. Susceptibility to consequences
3. Benefits of particular actions
4. Barriers (costs) to action
What is alcohol myopia?
alcohol causes a short sightedness in which individuals pay attention to superficial, immediat cues, but ignore abstract, distant cues.
What are the 4 sexual motivations?
1. Enhancement Motives (pleasure)
2. Coping motives (min. neg. emotions)
3. Intimacy Motives (achieve intimacy)
4. Approval Motives
What is developmental psychology?
the branch of psychology that studies the patterns of physical, cognitive, and moral growth and change occuring throughout life
What are the 3 important issues in development?
Nature vs. Nurture
Continuity (motor skills) vs. Stages (cognitive)
Stability vs. Change
Piaget's 3 concepts needed to adapt to our envirionment?
1. Schemata
2. Assimilation
3. Accommaodation
What are Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development?
1. Sensorimotor: can't think about environment using lang. Object permanence develops

2. Preoperational: can represent things with language but lacks logical reasoning
a. Egocentrism: world from own pers.
b. animism: everything is alive
c. understanding conservation
3. Concrete Operational: child can think logically but not abstractly. Masters concept of conservation and reversibility.

4. Formal Operational: master most (only 40-60% reach)
What are Kkohlberg's levels of moral development?
Level 1: preconventional Level (judgement is self-centered)
* Punishment- obediance
* Instrumental- Exchange (costs & benefits)

Level 2: Conventional Level: other-centered
* Good-child orieintation (seek approval of others)
* Land and Order: conforming to norms

Level 3: Postconventional
* Social-Contract: obedience to laws
* Universal Ethics: morality to individual conscience
What are the three main approaches to personality?
A. Self report: survey
B. Projective Tests: inkblots
C. Behavioral Assessment
What are the 3 measurments of approaches?
Standardized, Reliable, Valid
What are Eysenck's major trait demensions?
Extraversion: extent to which someone is outgoing and sociable

Neuroticism: refers to how emotionally stable someone is
What are Norman's five trait factors?
Extraversion, emotional stability, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness.
What is Freud's stage theory?
Ppl. get fixated on a problem and exhibit a personality trait charcteristc of an earlier stage.
Criticisms of Freud's Theory?
* Built on unobservable, abstract conceptions
* Based on limited population
What is the cognitive approach to personality?
Interaction of person and environment
What is the learning approach to personality?
a person developes personality only if she is exposed to good models and is reinforced for appropriate behavior
What is the humanistic approach to personality?
humans are always trying to do better through decisions
Self-concept: perception of who wer are and what we like based on interactions with others
what is the biological approach to personality?
Genetic influences
What is Mischel's Alternative View?
There's no such thing as personality. All behavior is determined by external, social situations (kids view of own honesty)
How is health defined?
major health problems, past and present
What is stress?
the process by which we appraise and bodily respond to certain events that we see as threatening or challenging
What causes stress?
1. Major Life Events: usually involve change

2. Chronic Stressors: longterm

3. Daily Hassels: little, insignificant daily problems (most stressful)
What is id?
operates on pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
What is ego?
operates on reality principle satisfying id's desires in ways that will realistically bring leasure rather than pain
What is superego?
represents internalized ideals and is the conscience
What is type A personality?
competitive, hard-driving, impatients, verbally agressive, and anger-prone person