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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
actor-observer effect
The tendency to attribute the causes of one’s own behavior to situational factors while attributing the causes of other people’s behavior to internal factors or dispositions.
attitude
A positive or negative evaluation of persons, objects, or issues.
attraction
Feelings of liking for others, together with having positive thoughts about them and inclinations to act toward them in
attribution
An assumption about the causes of behavior or events.
authoritarian personality
A personality type characterized by rigidity, prejudice, and excessive concerns with obedience and respect for authority.
bait-and-switch technique
A compliance technique based on “baiting” a person by making an unrealistically attractive offer and then replacing it with a less attractive offer.
bystander intervention
Helping a stranger in distress.
cognitive dissonance theory
The belief that people are motivated to resolve discrepancies between their behavior and their attitudes, beliefs, or perceptions.
compliance
The process of acceding to the requests or demand s of others.
conformity
The tendency to adjust one’s behavior to actual or perceived social pressures.
contact hypothesis
Allport’s belief that under certain conditions, increased intergroup contact helps reduce prejudice and intergroup tension.
discrimination
Unfair or biased treatment of people based on their membership in a particular group or category.
dispositional causes
Causes relating to the internal characteristics or traits of individuals.
door-in-the-face technique
A compliance technique in which refusal of a large, unreasonable request is followed by a smaller, more reasonable request.
elaboration likelihood model (ELM)
A theoretical model that posits two channels by which persuasive appeals lead to attitude change: a central route and a peripheral route.
foot-in-the-door technique
A compliance technique based on securing compliance with a smaller re quest as a prelude to making a larger request.
fundamental attribution error
The tendency to attribute behavior to internal causes without regard to situational influences.
groupthink
Janis’s term for the tendency of members of a decision-making group to be more focused on reaching a consensus than on critically examining the issues at hand.
impression formation
The process of developing an opinion or impression of another person.
in-group favoritism
A cognitive bias involving the predisposition to attribute more positive characteristics to members of in-groups than to those of out-groups.
in-groups
Social, religious, ethnic, racial, or national groups with which one identifies.
legitimization of authority
The tendency to grant legitimacy to the orders or commands of per sons in authority.
low-ball technique
A compliance technique based on obtaining a person’s initial agreement to purchase an item at a lower price before revealing hidden costs that raise the ultimate price.
matching hypothesis
The belief that people tend to pair off with others who are similar to themselves in physical attractiveness and other characteristics.
obedience
Compliance with commands or orders issued by others, usually persons in a position of authority.
out-group homogeneity
A cognitive bias describing the tendency to perceive members of out-groups as more alike than members of in-groups.
out-group negativism
A cognitive bias involving the predisposition to attribute mo re negative characteristics to members of out-groups than to those of in-groups.
out-groups
Groups other than those with which one identifies.
personal identity
The part of our psychological identity that involves our sense of ourselves as unique individuals.
prejudice
A preconceived opinion or attitude about an issue, person, or group.
prosocial behavior
Behavior that benefits others.
proximity
Nearness or propinquity.
racism
Negative bias held toward members of other racial groups.
reciprocity
The principle that people tend to like others who like them back.
self-fulfilling prophecy
An expectation that helps bring about the outcome that is expected.
self-serving bias
The tendency to take credit for our accomplishments and to explain away our failures or disappointments.
situational causes
Causes relating to external or environmental events.
social facilitation
The tendency to work better or harder in the presence of others than when alone.
social identity
The part of our psychological identity that involves our sense of ourselves as members of particular groups. Also called group identity.
social loafing
The tendency to expend less effort when working as a member of a group than when working alone.
social norms
Standards that define what is socially acceptable in a given situation.
social perception
The processes by which we form impressions, make judgments, and develop attitudes about the people and events that constitute our social world.
social psychology
The subfield in psychology that deals with how our thoughts, feelings, and behavior s are influenced by our social interactions with others.
social schema
A mental image or representation that we use to understand our social environment.
social validation
The tendency to use other people’s behavior as a standard for judging the appropriateness of one’s own behavior.
stereotype threat
A sense of threat evoked in people from stereotyped groups when they believe they may be judged or treated stereotypically.
stereotypes
The tendency to characterize all members of a particular group as having certain characteristics in common.