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138 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Knowledge that is independent of experience is called
a priori
Knowledge that is dependent on experience is called
a posteriori
The theorist, Wilhelm Wundt, used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. His theory is called
William James focused on how behavioral processes function - how they enable organism to adapt, survive, and flourish through experience. His theory was called
The definition of Psychology, as presented in the text, is
the science of behavior and mental process
The psychological perspective that studies how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information is the ________ perspective
The psychological perspective that studies how the body and brain enable emotions is the ________ perspective.
Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems is called
Applied research
Pure science that aims to increase the knowledge base in called
Basic Research
The first step of the Scientific Method is
Formulate a research question
Given the information that as the outdoor temperature increases, the sales of icecream increases, one would state there is a _____ between the two statements
Positive correlation
Given the information that as the outdoor temperature decreases, the sales of coats increases, one would state there is a _______ between the two statements
negative correlation
The method of testing a hypothesis which is observing and recording in a systematic way that people do is called
Scientific Observation
The intensive study of one individual or situation to test the hypothesis is the
Case Study
The information collected from personal interview, or questionnaire as a method to test a hypothesis
A ________ is an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
A specific prediction that is stated in such a way it can be tested and ethier confirmed or refuted is called a
A repetition of a scientific study using the same procedures on another group of participants to verify or refute the original studys conclution is called
in the process of Dialectical Thought, the initial intellectual proposition or truth is called
The negation of the initial proposition, or an opposite truth, is called
The resolution that solves the conflict by reconciling thier common truths, and forming a new proposition is called the
In measures of Central Tendency, the most frequently occuring score in a distribution is called the
In measures of Central Tendency, the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores called
In measures of Central Tendency,the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it is called the
A chemical messenger in the brain is called a
The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the recieving neuron is called a
The brain and the spinal cord are the
Central Nervous System
The sensory and motor neurons that connect the brain and spinal column to the rest of the body is the
Peripheral Nervous System
A substance which acts as an ________ mimics a neurotransmitter
A substance which acts as an _____________ blocks a neurotransmitter
The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy is the ____________ nervous system
More intelligent animals have increased "uncommitted" or ___________ areas of the cortex
What do males and females contribute to genes
F: X
M: X and Y
Monozygotic twins that originiate from one zygote are called
Indentical twins
Dizygotic twins that originate from two seperate zygotes are called
Fraternal twins
One's sense of being male or female is called
Gender Identity
The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and enviormental influences on behavior is called
behavior Genetics
The shared ideas and behaviors that one generation passes on to the next are called
The effect of one factor depends on another factor is called
Interaction or Epigenisis
style of parenting where limits and guidance providid but parents are willing to compromise is called
A style of parenting where parents demonstrate high standards and expectations with low nurturance is called
A style of parenting where parents demonstrate little control but nurturing is called
Every nongenitic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us is called
In psychology the characteristics whether biologically or socially influenced by which people define male and female is called
The developing human organism from 2 weeks through 2nd month is called an
The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth is called
The fertilized egg from conception to 2 weeks is called
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm are called
____________ is the concept that describes people's ideas about thier own and others' mental states - about thier feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behaviors these might predict
Theory of mind
The division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations is the ________ nervous system
An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting is called
The theorist that proposed that childhood sexuality and unconconcious motivations influence personality was
The theorist that proposed the importance of interaction with relationships; parental, educational, religious, ect in the development of personality was
The processes by which children incorporate thier parents' values into thier developing superegos are called
Lingering foci of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where conflicts were unresolved are called
The ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconciously distorting reality are
Defense Mechanisms
Slamming the door instead of hitting a person, yelling at your spouse after an arguement with your boss are examples of
Placeing unacceptable impulses in yourself onto someone else is called
Acting out unacceptable impulses in a socially acceptable way is called
returning to a previousstage of development is known as
forgetting sexualabuse from your childhood due to the trauma and anxiety is an example of
Conciously trying to forget something that causes you anxiety is called
Freud compared the mind to an
In psychoanalyitic theory, the _______ contains a reservoir of unconcious psychic energy strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives, and operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
In psychoanalytic theory, the ________ provides standards for judgement and for future aspirations
In psychoanalytic theory, the __________ is the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality and mediates among the demands of the other psychic structures and reality
Freud's approach in describing the development of the personality is
Erickson's approach in describing the development of perosnality is
An infant who is unresponsive to parent when present & unaffected when parent leaves is an example of
Insecure Avoidant Attachment
A child who cries when parents are gone and is comforted when parents returns is demonstrating
secure attachment
Infants whom seek closness with parent before parent leaves & shows anger responses when parents returns and are hard to comfort while being held are demonstrating
Insecure Resistance Attachment
The motivation to fulfills one's potential is called
self actualization
The personality trait, one of the big 5, which is measured by calm vs anxious, secure vs insecure, and self satisfied vs self pitying is
The personality trait, one of the Big 5, which is measured by sociable vs retiring, fun loving vs sober, and affectionate vs reserved is
The personality trait, one of the Big 5, which is measured by imaginative vs practical, preference for variety vs preference for foutine, and independent vs conforming is
The interacting influences between personality and enviormental factors is called
Reciprocal Deterinism
The perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate is called
External Locus of control
The perception that one controls one's own fate is
Internal Locus Control
The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition is known as
Fundamental Attribution Error
When one acts to reduct the discomfort one feels when two of one's thoughts are inconsistent is known as
Cognative Dissonance theory
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard is
This situation results from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
Normative Social Influence
The belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people and events is thier
A set of expectations about a social position is called a
The loss of self awareness and self restraint in a group situations that foster arousal and anonymity is called
A situation in which the conflicting parties, by which rationally pursuing thier self interest, become caught in mutally destructive behavior is
Social Trap
A situation in which an individual profits from selfishness unless everyone chooses the selfish alternative, in which case the whole group loses
Social Dilemma
The emotional componet of negative Social Relations is called
The cognative componet of negative Social Relations is called
The Behavioral componet of negative Social Relations is called
The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events is
The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system recieve and represent stimulus energy is
Analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information is called
Bottom up Processing
Information processing guided by higher-level mental process, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations, is called
Top Down Processing
The cells located in the retina of the eye that detect black, white and gray and work well in twilight or low light are called
The cells located in the retina of the eye that control fine detail and color vision, and work best in day light or well lit conditions are called
The sense of hearing is called
The system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts in relation to the enviorment is called
The sense of body movement and position involving the sense of balance is called
Vestibluar Sense
The tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes is called
Our awareness of ourselves and our enviorments is called
A false sensory experience is called a
The tendency to integrate peices of information into meaningful wholes is called
Ingestion of a drug, reguardless of how much or often is called
Drug Use
Using a drug in a quantity or a manner that harms physical, cognative, or psychosocial well being is called
Drug Abuse
When the absence of a drug creates a craving to satisfy a physiological or psychological need that is a sign of
drug addiction
Drugs that reduce neural activity such as alchol barbituarates, and opiates and slow body functions are called
Drugs that excite neural activity such as caffeine nicotine amphethamines and cocaine and speed up the body finctions are called
Psychedelic drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absences of sensory input are called
Sigmund Freud described the remembered story line of a dream as
Manifest Content
Signmund Freud described the underlying meaning of a dream as
Latent Content
Which theory supports that organisms learn by associating two or more events or stimuli
Classical Conditioning
Which theory supports that organisms learn by a series of rewards & punishments
Operant Conditioning
Which theory supports that organisms learn by watching others and modeling thier behaviors
Observational learning
Which of the following describes the ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other similar stimuli
Which of the following has occured when a conditioned response does not follow a conditioned stimulus
Which of the following describes the tendency for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses
If a parents goal was to increase the child's attention to homework, which of the following would the parent employ
Positive reinforcement
In a parents goal was to decrease the number of temper tantrums the child demonstrated, which of the following would the parent employ
Negative Punishment
A behavioral techinque for treating phobias in which the techniques is pairing an imagined feared object with relaxation is called
Systematic desensitization
A behavioral technique for treating phobias in which the technique is immersing someone in thier fear until it loses its power is called
The theory that proposes that any stimulus and response connected in time and or space will tend to be associated such as a baseball player wearing a certian pair of socks on the day he hits three home runs associated wearing the socks and hitting home runs is called
Contiguity Theory
The theory that involves the view that learning occurs when stimuli provides information about the likely hood of the occurrence of other stimuli such as a thunderstorm may product a tornado, is called
The activated memory that holds a few items briefly is called
Short Term Memory
The immediate initial recording of sensory information in the memory system is called
sensory Memory
The relatively limitless warehouse of information is called
Long Term Memory
The process of getting information out of memory is called
The processing of information into the memory system is called
The retention of information over time is called
Storage and use of knowledge of personally experienced events and autobiographocal information is known as
Episodic Memory
Storage and use of information underlying skilled persormance such as riding a bicycle is known as
Procedural Memory
General knowledge organized by content and the storage and use of knowledge of words and concepts thier properties and interrelartions in known as
Senantic Memory
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli is called
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli is called
Echoic Memory
The statement that we remember situations better when we are tested in the same place that we learned them is representative of which type of recall situation
Context Dependent
Which of the following neurotransmitters or hormones influences sensation and perception
Which of the following neurotransmitter or hormones influences learning rates
Which of the following neurotransmitters or hormones influences sharpness of action