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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a drug or poison that decreases the activity of one or more neurotransmitters?
antagonist
Why is progesterone the main ingredient in birth control pills?
It maintains pregnancy and therefore makes the body believe it is pregnant.
What is the function of noradrenalin and adrenalin?
They prepare the body for action.
What hormone is released from the testes?
androgens
What is the function of progesterone?
Maintaining pregnancy
What is the function of estrogen?
Female reproductive processes
What hormones are released at the ovaries?
Estrogen, progesterone
What is the microscopic gap between neurons across which neurotransmitters travel to carry their messages to other neurons?
synaptic gap (synapse)
What is the insulating layer covering axons that allows for faster neural impulse?
Myelin sheath
What is the long, singular fiber projecting out of the cell body of a neuron whose function is to conduct the neural impulse from the cell body to the axon terminals?
axon
What are the fibers projecting out of the cell body of a neuron whose function is to receive info from the other neurons?
Dendrites
What is the part of the neuron that contains its nucleus?
Cell body
What is the neurological problem that causes Alzheimer's disease?
a loss of acetylcholine
What is the neurological problem that causes endogenous depression?
Underactive serotonin and norepinephrine
What are the two pathways of action for the hypothalamus once the system is activated?
The release of adrenaline and epinephrine or the release of cortisol
What are the two pathways of action for the hypothalamus once the system is activated?
The release of adrenaline and epinephrine or the release of cortisol
What are two possible immediate effects of the release of adrenaline?
1) Changes in the blood chemistry
2) Release of glucose or endorphins
What are three immediate effects of cortisol release from the hypothalamus?
1) Helps recover energy
2) Regulation of hunger
3) Triggers the immune system
What problems can stem from the over-release of adrenaline?
1) Hardening of arteries
2) Coronary disease
3) Strokes
4) Hypertension
5) High blood pressure
What are problems that can stem from the over-release of cortisol?
1) Inhibition of immune system
2) Damage to hippocampus and amygdala
3) Weight gain
What are problems that can stem from a lack of cortisol?
Auto-immune diseases such as diabetes
What are the appropriate ways to reduce stress?
1) Low-fat diet
2) Exercise
3) Regular sleep pattern
4) Limite intake of recreational drugs
5) Social support
How do low-fat diets combat stress?
Prevent the decrease of BDNF which stimulates neuro-development in the hippocampus
How does regular sleep combat stress?
Prevents the over-release of cortisol which is caused by sleep deprivation
How does exercise combat stress?
Increases BDNF and increases prolactin which can reduce anxiety
How does limiting alcohol help to combat stress?
Prevents the over-release of cortisol which alcohol increases.
How does social support combat stress?
It increases oxytocin which lowers cortisol release and sympathetic arousal
What are the 3 main points of evolutionary theory?
1) adaptation
2) phyletic change
3) speciation