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122 Cards in this Set

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Age cohort
A group of people born at the same time who thus share similar experiences (e.g., people born in the late 1940s were young adults in the Vietnam era)
Animism
The belief that every movement (of living and nonliving objects) is caused by animating spirits.
Auscultation
The process of listening for sounds within the human body
Biomedical Model
A model that assumes that illness can be fully accounted for by a person's deviations from the norm on measurable biological variables
Biopsychosocial Model
A model that requires that psychological and social factors be included in any attempt to understand symptoms and the experience of illness.
capitation
A system in which all health care needs are provided for a fixed monthly or quarterly fee per person
Causal inference
A definitive statement about the cause of a phenomenon
control group
In an experiment , the group that is randomly assigned to receive no treatment
Conversion hysteria
The phenomenon in which it is believed that unconscious psychological anxiety is transformed into physical symptoms
Correlation
An association between two variables
Covary
to correlate, to relate in a specified and predictable way
Cross-lagged correlation
An assessment of the degree of association between two variables, one of which is viewed as a lagged value of the outcome variable
Cross-sectional research
Research that compares subjects on one or more variables at a single point in time.
Diagnosis
The identification of disease based on signs and symptons
Dialysis
a process of mechanically filtering toxic byproducts from the blood.
Disease
Physical findings and symptoms that form a definable disease entity.
Dualism
the idea that mind and body are separate and independent entities
Etiology
Cause and Origin
Experimental Group
A group or condition in which the participants receive a manipulation or intervention.
Field study
A study that is conducted in a natural setting
General Practitioner
A physician trained to treat a wide variety of diseases
Germ Theory
The idea that microorganisms cause diseases
Hospice
A method of care for the terminally ill in which the goal is not to sure, but to provide comfort and emotional support to the patient and family.
Humors
The four bodily fluids (phlegm, blood,black bile, and yellow bile) related ti personality; disequilibrium was proposed by the Greeks to result in disease.
Illness
May or may not involve clinical signs, symptoms, and a disease entity. Involves Functional impairment as well as effects on cognitions, emotions, and behavior.
Laboratory Study
A study conducted in a laboratory as opposed to the natural environment
Longitudinal Study
Compares subjects on one or more variables over time
meta-analysis
A research technique in which the "cases" are research studies; allows researchers to statistically combine all of the findings on a particular topic.
Monism
The idea that the mind and body are one entitiy
Palpation
the application of the fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine the consistency of parts beneath in physical diagnosis.
Prognosis
The forecast of the course of a disease
Prospective Research
research in which the predictor variable is measured in advance of the outcome variable
Random assignment
A method of soring participants into experimental versus control group; uses random methods (coin toss, Random number table) so that each participant has an equal chance of being chosen for either group.
Randomized clinical trial
in the medical field, the term for a "true experiment"
Retrospective data collection
Data collection method in which participants report past events that they recall (although recall can be bias)
State-dependent memory
the tendency of people to remember most easily the events of the past connected with the emotional state they feel as they report.
True experiment
A type of study in which participants are assigned randomly to either a treatment or control group; groups are assumed to be equivalent prior to the treatment and therefore the researcher can infer causality
Variable
A measurable characteristic of people, objects, or events that may change or vary.
Active listening
giving complete attention to the speaker as well as reflecting back to him or her precisely what is understood
Active-Passive model
A model of the practitioner-patient relationship that occurs when the patient is unable, because of medical condition, to participate in his or her own care and to make decisions for his or her own welfare.
Closed-ended questions
Questions that require answers of one or a few words and ask for a specific fact or piece of information
Collaborative relationship
A relationship in which doctor and patient work together as equal participants to achieve desired medical outcomes.
Communication
A process in which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior.
Conclusion
The end of the medical encounter, when the practitioner makes a recommendation.
Consumerist relationship
A relationship in which the patient is a consumer, buying a service, and retains decision-making control.
Default Relationship
A relationship in which neither the doctor nor the patient are particularly invested in care, and each takes little responsibility for ultimate outcomes; each does the minimum required by his or her role.
Expanded biomedical model
A model which predominantly resembles the narrowly biomedical model, but does incorporate some psychosocial elements.
Focused questions
Questions that are more narrow than open-ended and broader than closed-ended questions
Guidance-cooperation model
A model of the practitioner-patient relationship that occurs when the physician assumes primary responsibility for diagnosis and treatment. The patient does not contribute a perspective and leaves all decisions to the physician.
Illness behavior
How an individual responds to the symptoms of illness
Interview
Foundation for the structuring of the patients history
Malignant
Cancerous
Medical History
The part of the medical encounter in which necessary information is elicited from the patient, such as the symptoms, when they began, what makes them improve or get worse, and how the patient has tried to overcome the problem before coming to the physician.
Medical Jargon
Medical terms typically used by health professionals that are often not understood by patients
Mutual participation model
a model of the practitioner-patient relationship in which practitioner and patient make joint decisions about every aspect of care. There is joint input from physician and patient, and joint responsibility in the choices made.
Mutual Relationship (mutuality)
A relationship in which both doctor and patient are highly invested in patient outcomes, and each is actively involved in the medical interaction
Narrowly biomedical model
A model in which the focus is on purely biological and medical factors, and the physician spend most of his or her time asking closed-ended questions.
nonverbal communication
communication without words
open-ended questions
questions that encourage elaboration and invite a patient to talk
paternalistic relationship
A physician-patient relationship in which the physician has most of the control
patient abdication
when the patient relinquishes responsibility for choices about care and the physician makes all of the decisions
Patient autonomy
when the ultimate decision-making responsibility rests with the patient
Physical examination
the part of the medical visit during which the medical professional examines the patient's body to determine possible signs of disease.
premise
An assumption on which an argument is based
psychosocial model
a model in which the medical interaction is primarily focused on psychosocial issues.
reassurance
emotional support consisting of a hopeful attitude and of specific statements that are designed to be realistic but also to assist in reducing patient's fear
recommendation
the advice that is given to the patient during the conclusion portion of the medical visit
relationship termination
when the patient and physician part ways because of an irreparable problem in the relationship.
Subcutaneous
under the skin
Affective component of empathy
component of empathy involving sensitivity to the patient's feelings and attention to the patient's words, gestures, and actions
bedside manner
A medical practitioner's behavior toward patients; typically refers to the ability to instill trust and to respond to the patient's emotional needs.
Body Language
Nonverbal cues that involve body movements and positions
Cognitive component of empathy
A health professionals careful observation of patient behavior and knowledge of the meaning of what is observed.
communicative component of empathy
Communicating back to a person that he or she is understood.
Decoding
Recognition and understanding of patient's nonverbal expressions
Doctor-talk
High-sounding, formal, and sometimes frightening language used by physicians in their communication with patients.
Empathy
Being sensitive to another individual's changing feelings and "connecting" emotionally to that person; understanding another's private perceptions.
Encoding
The ability to control emotional expressions via nonverbal cues
Extralinguistic cues
cues apart from the spoken language, including pauses, stutters, sighs.
Eye contact
a potentially powerful nonverbal cue involving eye to eye gaze
Facial expression
nonverbal cues exhibited on the face and easially controlled
Incubation period
time from exposure to disease to development of symptoms
Malpractice
the negligent practice of medicine
Medical Professionals
professionals who care for patients, including physicians, nurses, chiropractors, and others.
metacommunication
communication about communication
negotiation
the action or process of arriving at settlement of some matter through discussion and compromise
optimism
tendency to see things as positive and expect good outcomes
placebo response
A change in the body that results from the symbolic significance which attributes to an event or object in healing environment.
Rapport
Characteristic of relationship with mutual trust and emotional affinity
Regression
a term to indicate that a person has reverted to aspects of childlike, dependent role characteristic of an earlier stage of development
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Acting in a way that causes fulfillment of one's expectations, even if they are initially incorrect.
Socioemotional aspects of medical care
components of treatment that deal with patients' emotions and with the social context of their illnesses.
Technical quality of medical care
The technical expertise of the medical practitioner in the realms of diagnosis and treatment
Touch
A nonverbal cue that is believed to be very important in the practitioner-patient relationship. Can convey reassurance, comfort, and caring.
Voice tone
character and emphasis of the voice in the communication of emotion.
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
A disease that impairs the immune system of its victims, making them unable to fight off infections.
Aerobic exercise
Exercise that dramatically increases oxygen consumption over an extended period of time.
Alcoholic
A person who is physically and psychologically addicted to alcohol and who experiences health and social problems from its consumption
Atherosclerosis
A disease condition in which fatty, fibrous plaques narrow the opening of an artery, threatening blood flow to the heart or brain or other vital organs.
Aversion Therapy
A type of behavior modification in which punishment in the form of an aversive stimulus (e.g. Electric Shock) is used to extinguish a behavior.
BMI
Body Mass Index, Which is one of the estimating obesity; it is calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (kg/m²).
Carcinogen
Cancer-causing agent.
Cerbrovascular accident
Another Name for Stroke
Cholesterol
A fatlike substance found in the blood and in organs of the body; an important component of stones in the gallbladder and plaques on coronary arteries.
Chronic degenerative disease
Chronic disease conditions that become progressively worse over time; some are contributed to by poor health behavior.
Cirrhosis of the liver
A disease caused by an accumulation of scar tissue on the liver, causing loss of functioning of this vital organ; usually the result of alcoholism.
Disease theory of alcoholism
A theory of alcoholism that recognizes the biological components of addiction, as well as the psychological; it has given rise to medically oriented treatment programs and lessened the stigma associated with alcoholism.
Epidemic
Widely diffused and rapidly spreading occurrence of disease.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Mental retardation, central nervous system disorders, and growth and facial abnormalities in babies resulting from maternal alcohol consumption.
Hypertension
High blood pressure.
In utero
While still in the uterus; prenatal
Metastasis
Spread of cancer from its original site to other parts of the body.
Myocardial infraction
A Disease condition that can cause part of the heat muscle to be damaged or destroyed because of a lack of blood flow to the heart.
Orosensory properties
Sensations produced by food in the mouth
Preventive health behavior
Actions taken by an individual to prevent disease from developing or to forestall the negative outcomes of the disease condition, including diet, exercise, stopping alcohol and drug abuse, stopping cigarette smoking, using automobile safety restraints, using sun and bike helmet protection, and obtaining vaccinations.
Primary Prevention
All the activities undertaken by apparently disease-free individuals to help themselves achieve maximum well-being and avoiding disease.
Problem Drinkers
persons who may not evidence withdrawal symptoms but do experience social, psychological, and health problems as a result of drinking alcohol.
Relapse
A recurrence of symptoms after a period of improvement. In a case of smoking, relapse refers to returning to being a smoker after a period of having quit.
Secondary Prevention
Term referring to activities that are undertaken by people who are at increased risk of a particular disease in order to forestall its occurrence.
Stroke
Sudden impairment of circulation to the brain; usually occurs because a blood vessel has been blocked by a blood clot of a fat deposit or has leaked blood into the brain.
Tertiary Prevention
Term referring to activities that are under taken by people who have a particular disease in order to cure it or slow its progress.
Vaccine
A Substance that stimulates the production of antibodies in the human body, so that encounter with a pathogen do not result in infection, is delivered during immunization.