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27 Cards in this Set

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Motion Parallax-
Pg. 111
When you are moving, you use the speed of passing objects to estimate the distance of the objects. Nearby objects seem to zip by faster than do distant objects. (A Monocular Cue)
Overlap-
PG. 111
When one object partially blocks the view of another object, the partially blocked object is perceived as being farther away. (A Monocular Cue)
Transduction-
Pg. 85
The process by which a form of physical energy is converted into a coded neural signal that can be processed by the nervous system.
Sensation-
Pg. 85
The process of detecting a physical stimulus, such as light, sound, heat, or pressure.
Perception-
Pg.85
The process of integrating, organizing, and interpreting sensations.
What is the difference between Sensation and Perception?
Sensation is the actual detection of a physical stimulus while perception process in which the brain understands the sensation.
What is the Muller-Lyer Illusion?
Pg. 116-117
A famous visual illusion involving the misperception of the identical length of two lines, one with arrows pointed inward, one with arrows pointed outward.
Sensory adaptation-
Pg. 88
The decline in sensitivity to a constant stimulus.
Texture gradient-
Pg. 111
As a surface with a distinct texture extends into the distance, the details of the surface texture gradually become less clearly defined.
What do psycologists mean by visible spectrum?
Pg. 89
The portion of the electromagnetic Spectrum that humans are capable of seeing.
What are the Sensory receptors for vision?
Pg. 90
Rods and Cones which are considered Photoreceptors. Contained in the retina.
How are auditory stimuli transmitted to the brain?
Pg. 97-
Sound waves are collected in the outer ear, amplified in the middle ear, and transduced, or transformed into neural messages, in the inner ear.
Conditioned stimulus (CS)-
Pg. 176
A formerly neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a reflexive response.
Conditioned Response (CR)-
Pg.176
The learned, reflexive response to a conditioned stimulus.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)-
Pg. 176
The natural stimulus that reflexively elicits a response without the need for prior learning.
Unconditioned Response (UCR)-
Pg.176
The unlearned, reflexive response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus.
Extinction-
Pg.178-179
The gradual weakening and apparent disappearance of conditioned behavior. In classical conditioning, extinction occurs when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus.
Spontanious Recovery-
Pg.178-179
The reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a period of time without exposure to the conditioned stimulus.
What is the difference between Extinction and Spontanious Recovery?
Pg. 178-179
Extinction is when Conditioned behavior disappears or begins to disappear. Spontaneous recovery is when conditioned behavior starts to occur again.
What was Pavlov studying when he became interested in Learning Theory? (Learning Theory).
Pg. 175-177
The role of saliva in digestion. This study used dogs.
What makes a Reinforcer?
Pg. 191
A stimulus or event that is sought in a particular situation. In everyday language, a reinforcing stimulus is typically something desirable, satisfying, or pleasant. (A reward maybe?)
What is the formal definition of learning?
Pg.174
A process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience.
Know Punishment.
Pg. 193
The presentation of a stimulus or event following a behavior that acts to decrease the likelihood of the behavior's being repeated.
Punishment by application-
Pg. 193
A situation in which an operant is followed by the presentation or addition of an aversive stimulus; also called positive punishment.
Punishment by Removal-
Pg. 194
A situation in which an operant is followed by the removal or subtraction of a reinforcing stimulus; also called negative punishment.
Watson/ Regieners study?
Find this*****
Conditioning-
Pg.174
The process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses.