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112 Cards in this Set

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what is consciousness?
our AWARENESS of ourselves and our environment
types of consciousness:
-automaticity:something you do not think about doing anymore (writing)

-selective attention: choose to focus on one thing (ex: gorilla in that basketball video)
what is sleep?
natural periodic loss of consciousness
biological rhythms and sleep
> 24 hr biological clock: circadian rhythm (internal clock), it can get messed up by little lights in your room cause it messes up your clock. (dont work out within 2 hours of sleep because if messes up your clock, by raising body temp)

>90 MINUTE sleep cycle: we pass 5 stages of sleep every 90 minutes

REM (stage 5) is they period where you dream (if on alcohol or drugs you wont reach REM)

with each cycle your REM gets longer
stages of sleep
stage 1: -when you first doze off, jerk yourself out of sleep, THETA

stage 2: sleep spindles

stage3: DELTA

stage 4:DELTA (deeper sleep), can still hear things around you (a dog bark) you just might put them in your dream instead

REM:theta and beta
What is the “dual processing” being revealed by today’s cognitive neuroscience?
discovered a two-track human mind, each with its own neural processing. This dual processing affects our perception, memory, and attitudes at an explicit, conscious level and at an implicit, unconscious level.
How much information do we consciously attend to at once?
We selectively attend to, and process, a very limited aspect of incoming information. We even display inattentional blindness, blocking out events and changes in our visual world. Shifting the spotlight of our attention from one thing to another contributes to car and pedestrian accidents.
How do our biological rhythms influence our daily functioning and our sleep and dreams?
Our internal biological rhythms create periodic physiological fluctuations. The circadian rhythm’s 24-hour cycle regulates our daily schedule of sleeping and waking, in part in response to light on the retina. Shifts in schedules can reset our biological clock.
How does sleep loss affect us?
Sleep deprivation causes fatigue and impairs concentration, creativity, and communication. It also can lead to obesity, hypertension, a suppressed immune system, irritability, and slowed performance (with greater vulnerability to accidents. ex: daylight savings: when we spring ahead an hour= more accidents).
Why do we sleep?
1.may have played a protective role in human evolution by keeping people safe during potentially dangerous periods; gives the brain time to (2) restore and repair damaged neurons and (3) store and rebuild memories of the day’s experiences. Sleep also (4) promotes creative problem solving the next day, and (5) encourages growth (the pituitary gland secretes a growth hormone in Stage 4 sleep).
what do we dream?
We usually dream of ordinary events and everyday experiences, most involving some anxiety or misfortune. Fewer than 10 percent (and less among women) of dreams have any sexual content. Most dreams occur during REM sleep; those that happen during non-REM sleep tend to be vague fleeting images.

Manifest content:dreams reflect traces of experiences and thoughts

latent content (freud): dreams represent unconscious drive

external stimuli: taking a noise you hear and putting it in your dream
The activation-synthesis theory suggests that dreams
are the brain’s attempt to make sense of random neural activity.
In interpreting dreams, Freud was most interested in their
latent content, or hidden meaning.
During sleep we pass through a cycle of five stages, each with characteristic brain waves. As the night progresses, the REM stage
REM gets progressively longer
The brain emits large, slow delta waves during the deepest stage of sleep, called
stage 4
During Stage 1 light sleep, a person is most likely to experience
stage 1
We register and react to stimuli outside of our awareness by means of __________ processing. When we devote full conscious attention to stimuli, we use __________ processing.
parallel, serial
dual processing
the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks.
inattentional blindness
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere.
change blindness
failing to notice changes in the environment.
manifest content
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content).
latent content
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content).
Selective attention is best illustrated by which of the following?
A. change blindness
B. inattentional blindness
C. cocktail party effect
d. all

D
Without fail, when you are talking to your best friend about something important, she continues to check her PDA and watch for people she knows. Nevertheless, she seems able to listen attentively and respond appropriately to what you are saying. This type of behavior is evidence of:
parrallel processing
Drivers detect traffic signals more slowly if they are also conversing on a cell phone. This best illustrates the impact of:
selective attention
Your best friend is going to have a baby in two months and has invited you to attend the homebirth. She has asked if you think a hypnotic suggestion will help alleviate the pain of childbirth. You tell her:
yes, because hypnosis can help to disassociate the sensation of pain from emotional suffering.
Dissociation has been used as an explanation for:
hypnotic pain relief
Research on addictive drugs most clearly indicates that:
most of america's smokers were able to kick the habit on their own
Alcohol consumption disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memory by:
decreasing the amount of time spent in REM
Evidence suggests that heredity influences some aspects of alcohol abuse problems. Which of the following findings supports this theory?
Having an identical twin who suffers from alcoholism is a greater risk factor than having a fraternal twin who suffers from alcoholism.
Twenty-five-year-old, Nellie, is an accountant who often goes out with coworkers after work to relax. Which of the following is a warning sign of alcoholism?
she sometimes drinks to alleviate depression or anxiety
An instinct is a complex behavior that has a _____________ throughout a species and is:
fixed pattern; unlearned
Lara’s mouth is dry and she realizes that she hasn’t had anything to drink all morning. The water level in her cells has dropped and she feels thirsty. Watching people drink large glasses of soda is driving her nuts and the next chance she gets, she will get an extra large drink. Which of the following can be used to explain why she is motivated to get a drink?
drive reduction theory
Taste preferences in humans are the result of:
culture, environmental factor, body chemistry
______________ is a protein secreted by fat cells and when abundant causes the brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger.
leptin
A starving rat will lose all interest in food if its _____________ is destroyed.
lateral hypothalamus
During which phase of the sexual response cycle does the refractory period begin?
resolution phase
Seventeen-year-old, Vanessa, just found out she is pregnant. Which of the following likely contributed to her unplanned pregnancy?
. sensitivity to the need for birth control
B. excess communication with her parents about birth control
C. alcohol use
D. high levels of estrogen

c
Unlike many of his friends, Vance has not had sexual intercourse. Which of the following factors have likely contributed to his abstinence?
high intelligence
B. mass media exposure to unprotected promiscuity
C. high levels of testosterone
D. high levels of estrogen

A
Women, more than men, prefer to alternate periods of high sexual activity with periods of very little sexual activity. This best illustrates gender differences in:
erotic plasticity
why do we dream?
1. satisfy out own wishes (freud): dream symbols reflect unconscious drives
2. file away memories
3. preserve neural pathways (physiological functions)
4. make sense of neural activity (activation-synthesis theory)
5. assist in cognitive development: information processing (sift and sort, consolidate memories)
dreams
4-5 a night (1/3 of your life asleep and 5 years of dreaming)

what do you typically dream about? work, school, family

-about 80% is negative content
-the brain has trouble telling if its reality or not

reoccurring dreams: 64% of women have them and 55% of men have them
types of dreams :Night mares
- anglo saxon word "mare" = demon

-cause disturbing emotions: anger, guilt sadness, fear

-children, those with exaggerated sensitivity

CAUSES: medications, illness/ fever, traumatic events, stress

Remedies: write about it, imagine a better ending
types of dreams: Lucid dreams
what are they? lighter stage of sleep, you actually know you are dreaming, you have some control over course of events

why beneficial? experience adventure, overcome fears

can you learn it? recount your dreams, reminders, set your clock

-conscious brain is awake in the dream, it feels more real
types of dreams: Creative dreams
-making seemingly unrelated connections relevant: scientific break throughs, writing, music, art, etc.
dream themes: taking a test
-feelings: you dont feel prepared, dont have needed info, cant remember

what freud thinks about it: examiner= parents, you dont meet expectations, guilt from sexual misconduct

what others think: general feeling of uncertainty, part of you knows the right answer, opportunity to succeed
dream themes: Nakedness
feelings: inopportune situation, in front of people you dont know

what freud thinks: actual memory, wish to return to exhibtionist tendencies of childhood

others: anxiety, vulnerablility, reaction of others= what you feel about self
dream theme: Losing teeth
feelings: teeth crumbling, falling out

what crazy freud thinks: castration anxiety, men are 3X more likely to have this dream

what others think: metaphor for loss of power, fear of old age/unattractiveness, physical, emotional injury
dream themes: Animals
dogs: can mean friendship. loyalty, relationship growing in strength or fading

Cats: represent the feminine, cultural expectations of female, untamed female energies
dream themes: Falling
-fall from grace, descent into hell, loss of status/ control

situation: depends on what happened before the fall, could mean fear or insecurity

nice falls: haven't felt grounded, return to reality
dream themes: being chased
-sense of urgency
-intense fear
-being paralyzed

what freud thinks: fulfill wish for sexual encounter

others: running from something within self
better to confront
what is hypnosis?
social interaction in which 1 person SUGGEST to another that certain perceptions, thoughts, feelings and behaviors will spontaneously occur
how would you study if hypnosis can make you cant against your own will?
The acid test:
-people WILLINGLY dipped hands into "acid"

-later did not recall it and claimed they would never do this
-control group performed same acts

Unclear but seems unlikely: people are willing to do much more than they think
how does hypnosis work?
dissociation through divided consciousness: split in consciousness
-allows some thoughts or behaviors to occur simultaneous with others

Social influence theory: hypnotized people are "role playing"
how hypnosis works:
attention is diverted from
an aversive odor. how?

--->social influence theory: the subject is so caught up in role playing that she ignores the odor

OR

Divided-consciousness theory---> hypnosis has caused a split in awareness
can hypnosis enhance memory recall?
Not so much.
hypnotically refreshed memories often combine fiction with fact
can hypnosis make people act against their will?
not so much.
peoples willingness are likely due to social influence

think: Milgram-Stanley Milgram demonstrated: An authoritative person in a legitimate context can induce people—hypnotized or not—to perform some unlikely acts. Hypnosis researcher Nicholas Spanos (1982) put it directly: “The overt behaviors of hypnotic subjects are well within normal limits.”
can hypnosis alleviate pain?
yes, acute pain more so than chronic pain
what CAN hypnosis do?
Spiegel: operative hypnosis
-hypnotized subjects used less medication
-they experienced less pain
-had less anxiety
-operations on hypnotized patients averaged 17 minutes shorter
-cost reduced
are hypnotized people faking it?
no, they are like actors getting caught up in their role
dissociation
a split between different levels of consciousness.
hypnotic pain relief
Hypnosis does not block sensory input, but it may block our attention to those stimuli.
more about hypnosis
hypnosis can be an extension both of normal principles of social influence and of everyday dissociations between our conscious awareness and our automatic behaviors.
what power does a hypnotist have over a subject?
Hypnosis is a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur. Hypnotized people, like unhypnotized people, may perform unlikely acts when told to do so by an authoritative person. Posthypnotic suggestions have helped people harness their own healing powers but have not been very effective in treating addiction. Hypnosis can help relieve pain, but it does not enhance recall of forgotten events (it may even evoke false memories).
drugs and consciousness
drugs: almost all substances have some effect on our mental states or behavior
drugs vs poison
poisons are meant to kill
psychoactive drugs
chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
addiction

common features of addiction

cravings and relapse
physical and psychic dependence (ex: cigarettes. you are physically addicted to nicotene, if you quit for 3 days you are no longer physically addicted just mentally need that sensation)

positive reinforcement: adds a good feeling
negative reinforcement:head aches, withdrawals (need that high to take those away)
DRUGS

tolerence:
diminshing effect with regular use. need more to get the same high (you'll never get that same high again)
DRUGS

withdrawal:
-discomfort (physical and psychological) after discontinuing use. Cold Turkey can actually kill you (especially with ALcohol)
hard thing about cravings and relapse
people actually have to change most aspects of their lives to get away from relapsing
Depressants
-drugs that reduce neural activity: alcohol, barbiturates, opiates
-slows body funx
-most people die from depressants because the body forgets to tell the brain to simply breathe.
depressant: Alcohol
affects motor skills, judgement, and memory

reduces self awareness (GABA)
depressants: Barbiturates
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety by impairing memory and judgement
-drugs prescribed for anxiety
-can kill you easily
opiates
opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin)

opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety

-HIGHLY ADDICTIVE

-its the trend is to use heroin because they can't get prescription drugs
Stimulants : amphetamines
stimulates neural activity, causing body funx enhancement and mood changes
-3X more powerful than coccaine

stimulants in general: drugs that excite the neural activity: caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines
stimulants: coccaine
effects depend on dosage, form and expectations, personality and situation

made as: cocoa leaves, power and crack

-blocks dopamine transporter
-think heart attack b/c everything is going so fast
DRUGS: hallucinogens
-psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input: LSD and MDMA (ECSTASY!!)
DRUGS: hallucinogens: LSD
LSD: Lysergic acid diethylamide
- a POWERFUL hallucinogen
-also known as acid
- no known long term affects
-malingerers: one's that fake they are stick in a permienant high
-synethically manufactured
DRUGS: hallucinogens- THC
the major active ingredient in marijuana
- triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations

Dr. Dreher: does research on marijuana (in jamiaca): she found that pregnant women who smoked weed had slight fetal problems, but as they grew up they had a "better outcome"
DMT
naturally produced inside your brain

produced during REM

has triptiphan: which makes you feel good
-supposedly you can't get addicted or have withdrawals (can be a habit though)
why you might get addicted to drugs
biology: predisposition
culture: social and religious
self medication
what is motivation?
the NEED or DESIRE that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal
perspectives on motivation
>instinct and evolutionary perspective: your motivated by instincts, how we survive, they are not learned, they are fixed patterns (like the birds flying in a V)
perspectives on motivation: Drive-reduction theory
>a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (or drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.

-you have a drive/need and you do thinks to saatisfy that need
ex: eat when your hungry

-that drive is trying to make you achieve homeostasis

-PUSHED by need to reduce drives
-PULLED by incentives (positive and negative stimuli)
perspectives on motivation: Arousal theory
>optimal arousal: aim for this
-brought on by curiosity not a need.
-exploration
Hierarchy of motives
- Maslow 1970: certain needs have priority over others

1. physiological needs (food)
2. safety needs
3. belonging and love needs
4. esteem needs
5. self-actualization needs
what plays into eating behavior
Biological influences: appetite hormones, set weight point, stomach pangs

Psychological influences: sight and smell of food
variety of foods available
memory of time elapsed
mood

Social-Cultural Influences: cultural learned taste preferences
learned restraint in cultures idealizing thinness
physiology of hunger
the stomach contracts (pangs) and sends signals to the brain making us aware of our hunger
hunger and the BRAIN
the hypothalamus: signals sent to hypothalamus from stomach and intestines and liver.
Hunger and the BRAIN: lateral hypothalamus



ventromedial hypothalamus
-brings on hunger
-destroying it doesn't work for obese people because then they would be come anorexic with no motivation to eat


-depresses hunger
tells you when your full
destroyed=excessive eating
hunger and the brain: set point
manipulating the lateral and the VMH alters the body's "weight thermostat" , its where your body wants to be (whether that is good or not)

-heredity influences set point and body type
psychology of hunger
memory plays an important role in hunger. due to difficulties with retention, amnesia patients eat frequently if given food
taste preference:
body chem and environmental factors influence not only what we eat but how much and when we eat
OBESITY
disorder of being excessively over weight

increases your risk for just about any disease

death rate high among very overweight men

BMI healthy under 25 (22 is optimum)
overweight 25-29
obese over 30
genetic factors of obesity
if they have a defective gene for the hormone leptin (they will be overweight)
other contributing factors of obesity
- activity or lack of activity: office jobs

-food consumption: super size it, food consumption has gone up
possible reasons for eating disorders
sexual abuse
family
genetics
pressure: societal and peer
sex and motivation
-hunger responds to a need

-in the same sense, sex is not a need because if we do not die, or do we? the human race as a whole would die, but an individual would not
what affects our sexual motivation?
biological: sexual maturity
sex hormones
sexual orientation

psychological: exposure to stimulating conditions
sexual fantasies

socio-cultural: family and society values
religious and personal values
cultural expectations
masters and johnson describe the human sexual response cycle in 4 consisting phases:
1. excitement (sometimes desire comes before)
2.plateau
3. orgasm (sensation is same for both sexes, further evidence from PET scans)
4.resolution (body returns to unaroused state, refactory period [differs with everyone])
biological factors
sexual problems: : premature ejaculation and erectile disorder. Women may suffer from orgasmic disorders. These problems are not due to personality disorders and can be treated through behavior therapy and drugs.


SEX hormones: effect the development of sexual characteristics and (especially in animals) activate sexual behavior. Female animals “in heat” express peak levels of estrogen. Female receptivity may be heightened with estrogen injections.
Levels of testosterone remain relatively constant in males, so it is difficult to manipulate and activate sexual behavior. Castration, which reduces testosterone levels, lowers sexual interest.
biological factors: sexual orientation
preference for emotional and sexual relationships with either same sex, other sex and either sex

homosexuality: 3-4% of men and 1-2% of woemn

differing brain centers

genetics

parental hormone exposure

animal homosexuality
psychological factors
external stimuli: and imagined stimuli along with physiological readiness= sexual motivation
socio-cultural factors
cultural expectations: adolescents

societal values: contraception, STD and STI

religious values
need to belong
marijuana does not cause memory lose but
Marijuana also disrupts memory formation and interferes with immediate recall of information learned only a few minutes before.
adoptive child are not as affected by alcoholism if there adoptive parents drink, buttt
Adopted individuals are more susceptible to alcohol dependence if one or both biological parents have a history of it.
The depressants include alcohol, barbiturates
and opiates
Nicotine and cocaine stimulate neural activity, speed up body functions, and
induce a temporary sense of well-being.
Long-term use of Ecstasy can
damage serotonin-producing neurons.
Near-death experiences are strikingly similar to the hallucinations evoked by
LSD
Social-cultural explanations for drug use often focus on the effect of peer influence. An important psychological contributor to drug use is
the feeling that life is meaningless and directionless.
Hunger occurs in response to high blood insulin and
low blood glucose and high levels of ghrelin.