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130 Cards in this Set

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Who was in the founder of developmental psychology?
G. Stanley Hall
What is plasticity?
The capacity to chance in repsonse to positive or negative experiences.
What does usage of a random sample in the scientific method try to do?
Increases the confidence that the studied sample is representative of a larger population of interest.
What are the five ways to gather data?
Verbal reports, observation, and physiologiclal measurements, and experimental method, correlational method.
What is structured observation?
When special conditions are designed to elicit the behavior that researchers are interested in.
What is the greatest strength of the experimental method?
Its ability to establish unambiguously that one thing causes another.
What is the manipulated variable?
The independent variable.
What is the measured variable?
The dependent variable.
What is the correlation coefficient?
A measurement to judge the strength of a relationship between two variables.
What is the major downfall of the corrlelational method?
A causal relationship can not be established.
What are the three factors that influence developmental studies?
age effects, cohort effects and time of measurement effects.
What are the three types of research designs?
Longitudinal (same group assessed repeatedly); Cross-sectional (different ages or groups assessed at one time alltogether); and sequential design (both together).
What is main judgement used by IRBs?
benefit-risk ratio
What are the four components that must be present for research to be ethical?
Informed consent, debriefing, protection from harm, and confidentiality
Name the four components to Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model.
microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem and macrosystem
What are the three components to a successful theory?
- Internally consistent (no internal contradictions)
- Falsifiable (can generate hypothesis)
- supported by data (should help us better describe, predict and explain human development)
What are the five issues that theorists often disagree on?
- nature vs. nurture
- activity vs. passivity
- continunity vs. discontinunity
- goodness vs. badness of human nature
- universality vs. context specificity
Who composed the psychoanalytic theory?
Freud.
What did Freud's ideas notion?
Humans have basic biological dirves that must be satisfied; believes in unconscious motivation to influence behavior without human's own knowledge.
What is the term that Freud used to describe "psychic energy"?
Libido.
What are the three components of Freud's theory?
- Id (impulsive side that seeks immediate gratification)
- Ego (rational part of brain)
- Super ego (internalized moral standards)
What are the stages of psychosexual development?
oral, anal, phallic, latent and gential
What are the two means of defenes mechanisms that Freud lists?
fixation (part of the libido remains in an early stage) and regression (retreating to an earlier, less traumatic stage)
What theory did Erik Erikson develop?
The Neo-Freudian Psychoanalytic theory.
What are psychosocial stages?
Erikson thought that people pass through eight conflicts during their lives.
What are the "strong points" of Erikson's theory?
He emphasized rationality, influenced thought on adolescent personality identity.
Who was a significant proponent of behaviorism?
John B. Watson
What is behaviorism?
Ideas of development should only be focused on overt, visible behavior, rather than speculation of emotional and cognitive states.
What is classical conditioning?
When a stimulus that has no effect on an individual comes to elicit a response through it's association with an already familiar stimulus.
Who performed the "Little Albert" experiment?
Raynor and Watson
What learning theory did Skinner believe in?
Operant conditioning.
What is operant conditioning?
Learner's behavior becomes either less or more probable based on the consequences that follow.
What are the two types of consequences that can be produced from operant conditioning?
Punishment (weakens behavior, so it is less likely to happen in the future) and reinforcement (strengthens behavior, so it is more likely to occur again).
Who developed the social cognitive theory?
Bandura
What does Bandura's theory claim?
Humans engage in active processing of information that plays a role in their learning, behavior and development.
What is observational learning?
using other people as models to learn.
What are the necessary components to engage in observational learning?
paying attention, constructing and remembering mental representations, retrieving and using these representations when necessary.
What experiment goes along with observational learning?
Bobo the doll - some children saw doll praised, others day it punished and others saw no consequences; children could reproduce these actions for their own afterwards, so children can learn actions.
What is vicarious reinforcement?
Learners become more or less likely to reproduce a behavior based on the consequences the model receives.
What is reciprocal determinism?
The idea that neither biology or environment takes sole control over an individual's life.
What is the name of Jean Piaget's theory?
Cognitive Development Theory.
What was a main tenant of Jean Piaget's theory?
Constructivism: we are constantly interacting with our environments to construct better understandings of the world.
What are the four stages of development in the cognitive development theory?
sensorimotor stage
preoperational stage
concrete operations stage
formal operations
What are the downfalls of Piaget's theory?
- did not account for emotional and motivational influences on cognitive thought
- underestimated young children's cognitive sense
What sort of theory was Lev Vygotsky's?
Contextual systems theory
What did Vygotsky's sociocultural perspective say?
Cognitive development shaped by sociocultural context in which it occurs; not the same universally.
What is ethology?
how biology and environment interact to produce development; Gilbert Gottlieb;
When does individual heredity begin?
At conception.
What was the name of the government sponsored effort to figure out human genetic code?
Human Genome Project.
When conception occurs, what is the name of the formed cell?
The zygote.
What is the function of DNA?
To guide development by providing instructions.
What is the process in which two cells become four cells and four cells become eight cells?
Mitosis.
What is the process responsible for genetic uniqueness and relatedness?
Crossing over.
What is crossing over?
When pairs of chromosomes line up before separation and parts are exchanged.
What is the purpose of crossing over?
To increase the number of distinct sperm and ova an individual can produce.
What term describes when chromosomes line up and are photographed?
A karotype.
What chromosomes determine which sex?
Males: xy
Females: xx
What is one's genotype?
The genetic makeup a person inherits.
What is one's phenotype?
The physical expression of the genetic material one has.
Who is the "father of genetics"?
Gregor Mendel.
What is co-dominance?
When neither gene dominates the other, so both are expressed.
What is sex-linked inheritance?
When single attributes are associated with single genes on sex chromosomes only; not on other 22 chromosomes; also known as x-linked inheritance.
What is another name for sex-linked inheritance?
X-linked inheritance.
What is polygenic inheritance?
When human characteristics are influenced by multiple pairs of genes.
When are chromosome abnormalities caused?
When chromosome divison does not occur properly during meiosis, so a child has too many or too few chromosomes.
What syndrome is caused by having three 21st chromosomes?
Down Syndrome (thick tongue, eyelid folds, stubby limbs; varied intelligence)
What syndrome is caused by having an extra X chromosome in a male?
Klinfelter syndrome (sterile and tend to develop feminine characteristics)
What is the syndrome when a female has only one X chromsome?
Turner syndrome (unable to reproduce, remain small, stubby toes and fingers).
What syndrome is the most common cause of heredity mental retardation?
Fragile X Syndrome.
What is Huntington's disease?
associated with single dominant gene, so the nervous system slowly deterioates.
What are the three kinds of gene-environment corrlelations?
Active (children's genotypes influence type of environment they seek);
Passive (parents' genotype influences their parenting styles)
Evocative (child's genotype evokes certain kinds of reactions in others)
What the three prenatal stages?
gerimal, embryonic and fetal.
What forms during the germinal stage?
The blastoplast that reaches the uterus around day six; miscarriage can occur with genetic defects;
In what process and stage do organs begin to take shape?
organogenesis; in the embryonic period
What are the two outcomes of the outer layer during the embryonic period?
Chorion (membrane around amnion that gathers nourishment) and amnion (membrane to cushion and protect embryo).
What may happen if the neural tube does not close in the embryonic stage?
Spina Difida.
When does the fetal period start for a child?
From the ninth week until birth.
What is the process in which cells begin to specialize?
Differentiation
What is the age of viability mean?
At 24/25 weeks, survivial outside the womb is possible if brain and respiratory system are well enough developed.
Why is the age of viability decreasing now?
Increased medical technology and knowledge.
What is the prenatal environment for a child?
The mother's womb.
What aspects influence the effect of a teratogen on a baby?
Critical period when exposured (worse effect when organs are forming); dosage and duration (longer and greater the dosage, more damage); genetic makeup of both child and mother; environment (effect depends on quality of prenatal and postnatal environments).
What are the three types of teratogens?
Drugs, Diseases and Environmental agents.
What teratogen causes a higher rate of miscarriage?
Tobacco (also reduces blood flow to fetus and reduces growth factor levels)
What is the effect of thalomide on an infant?
Said to relieve morning sickness, but actually causes deformities.
What are the best conditions for a mother to be in while pregnant?
aged 16-35; low stress and anxiety levels; high protien and calorie diet;
Who developed the Baby Biographies?
Charles Darwin - the beginning of children in scientific research; studied his own children which could have led to emotionial bias.
What are the four goals of study in developmental science?
Description, explaination, prediction and optimization.
What is the normative approach?
Studying children at different ages to computate average to represent typical development.
What is folk biology?
How kids see the world and think about their bodies.
What are cohort effects?
The effects of being born at a certain time.
What is the microgenetic design?
When a child is preseted with a new task and their mastery of that task is followed over time -- block gluing project.
Who developed the microgenetic design?
Robert Siegler.
What famous case highlight the ethical issues in child psychological studies?
Willowbrook State School - designed to serve developmentally disabled children, but they lived in terrible conditions and experimental testing was completed on them.
Which theorist discusses reciprocal determinism?
Bandura: environment and behavior impact one another.
In which theory do nature and nurture have an equal role?
Neo-Freudian Psychoanalytic theory - Erikson.
What distinguishes Erikson's theory from Freud's?
Erikson focuses more on the social influences than Freud did.
What distinguishes Bandura's social cognitive theory from the others?
Internal mental processes make Bandura different.
What did Bandura think about human nature?
He didn't think humans were inherently good or bad; they are individuals who reinforce punishment on themselves.
Who developed the most influential theory of intellectual devevelopment?
Piaget.
What is a withholding factor in Piaget's theory?
There are concrete and rigid states, with no culturally or socially acceptable way of teaching a child; does not take into account emotional development at an early age and underestimated young children's intellectual knowledge.
What distinguishes Bronfenbrenner from Piaget?
Bronfenbrenner takes into account culture, and Piaget does not consider it.
What is a downfall of Bronfenbrenner's theory?
There are no guidelines, and too much information makes it a vague theory.
What is the Minnesota Twin Study?
A study that is trying to address nature vs. nurture debate - to what extent are psychological characteristics different in twins?
What study proves that development is genetics and environments?
Jim Springer and Jim Lewis.
What is behavioral genetics?
Heredity influence environments encoutered by individuals.
What gene-environment corrlelation may explain why separated twins are so alike?
Active - niche picking: you choose environments that complement your heredity.
What is canalization?
The tendancy of heredity to restrict development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes; infant perception and motor development are highly canalized because they can roll over, sit up, etc.; but intelligence and personality are less canalized because they rely more on the environment.
What is concordance rate?
The percentage of instances in which both individuals of a pair show a trait when it is present in one indidividual.
What is Tay Sachs disease?
A child's development deteriates over time, as brain is strangled by fat and crushed as a result of a single bae change and lack of Hex A enzyme.
What are the three tests to detect abnormalities in children prior to birth?
- ultrasound: confirms pregnancy and structure composition, although no genetic information.
- amniocentesis: withdrawal of amniotic fluid during the 10-12th weeks, can find genetic disorders.
- chrionic villi sampling: withdrawing of cells from chorion (becomes the placenta), informative but can heighten rate of miscarriage.
What chromosomal abnormality is associated with trisomy 21?
Down's Syndrome - an extra 21st chromosome (thick tongue, and eyelid folds, flattened face, almond shaped eyes, some mental retardation etc.)
What sort of supplement is linked to better bone health for a child?
Vitamin D supplements; shows that women need high nutrition levels prior to pregnancy.
During what stage and week of pregnancy is sex determined?
The seventh/eighth weeks; during the embryonic stage. If testosterone is present then leads to development of a male.
During what trimester in the fetal period do organs, muscles and the nervous system begin to connect together?
The end of the first trimester and hearbeat is strong enough to be heard in a stethoscope.
What is vermix?
A white, cheese-like structure that protects baby against chapping from amniotic fluid.
What is the most important issue to remember regarding teratogens?
Most infants turn out healthy despite their presence.
How does only one sperm enter the membrance of the egg?
When one sperm enters, the membrane changes in it's qualities.
How is the sex of the infant determined?
The father's 23rd chromosome.
What is the term used to describe the egg/sperm union as it travels down the fallopian tubes?
The blastoplast.
What is the first organ to be developed in the infant?
The heart - which first develops at 22 days, sparks a chain reaction throughout the fetus and it is pre-programmed to contract.
What is the humans closest relative?
Chimpanzees - we share 98.5% of our DNA with them.
At what week does the baby become a fetus and reliant on the placenta, rather than the yolk sack?
The 8th week.
What hormone in the mother may cause morning sickness?
Progesterone.
During what weeks is the most dramatic change in all the pregnancy?
Between 6-11 weeks.
What is procreatiception>
The fetus' awareness of where its body is in space.
What are the most significant problems faced by premature babies?
Brain damage and underdeveloped lungs.
What is the most developed sense during the second trimester?
Hearing.
What hormone intiates contraction and helps mother to forget pain of birth?
Oxytocin.
What two organs signal birth for the child?
The lungs and the placenta.