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43 Cards in this Set

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Systemic observation
Naturalistic and structured (Mary Ainsworth and attachment)
Self reports
Clinical interview (question, response, question based on response), structured interviews, questionnaires, tests
Data collection methods (4)
Systemic observation, self reports, case studies, and ethnography
Clinical method
Brings together a wide range of info on one person (interviews, observations, and test scores)
General research designs (2)
Correlational, experimental
Independent variable
The factor that is manipulated. The suspected causal factor in the the relationship being studied
Dependent variable
The outcome you are studying. The factor that you suspect is effected by X.
Behaviorists (2 major)
John Watson and B. F. Skinner
Watson
Classical
Skinner
Operant
Behavorism
NURTURE!! can produce any behavior we want
Albert Bandura
Social Learning Theory (Cognitive behaviorism)
- learn by modeling others
- Self-efficacy
Cognitive or Information Processing Approach
Human cognition best understood as the management of information through system with limited space or resources
Nature
Twin studies and adoption studies
Transactional model
Development occurs as a result of the interplay of biology and experience over time
Piaget
Cognitive-Development Theory
4 stages
Cognitive-Development Theory
Schemas, assimilation, accommodation (different age groups conceptualize the world in completely different ways) FOCUSED ON CHILDREN
Freud
Father of psychoanalitic theory, unconscious motivations for behaviors, studied nervous disorders
Erikson
-Psychosocial Develpment
-The father of lifespan development
-Core development tasks
Development
Genotype --> Phenotype
Sperm cells and egg cells are called?
Gametes
Sperm cell (23) + egg cell (23)
Zygote (46)
Genes which produce traits
Structural genes
Homozygous
When both members of a gene pair have the same allelic form
Partial dominance
Both alleles are expressed, resulting in a combined trait (sickle cell anemia)
Gene and chromosomal abnormalities
Either have both of the recessive genes, or be a boy to get b/c they don't have anything to mask it on the Y chromosome
Disease caused by a dominant gene
Huntington's Disease
PKU
Recessive trait from both parents, need to alter diet to not injure nervous system, can't break down proteins
Sex-linked disease ex.
Hemophilia
Fragile X
- leading cause of familial retardataion
- only mother to child
- anticipation
Anticipation
Severity increases as the abnormal gene is passed along from one generation to the next
Fragile X in girls
Shy, learning disabilities, normal IQ, large ears
Fragile X in boys
Fully expressed mental retardation, autism, loose joints, large genitals, ears, and long nose
Charge Syndrome
Vision, hearing, development, small stature, int. upper resp
-caused by mutation (mistake during meiosis)
Kinship studies
Studies of individuals with differing degrees of biological relatedness. (How we study how heredity and environment work together)
Niche-picking
The tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity
Viable
Fetus can live on its own at 7 months (fat forms last 2 months)
Teratogens
Environmental agents that upset the course of development following conception (monster producing)
Can act directly on the baby or through mom
Diagnostic procedures (3)
-Ultrasounds
-Amniocentesis
-Chronic Villi sampling
Apgar Scale (5 steps)
New born evaluation
-Heart rate
-Respiratory effort
-muscle tone
-reflex responsively
-color
10-perfect, 4 or less- risk
Low birth weight
Less than 2,500 grams (5.5 lbs)
VERY LOW- 1,500 grams (3.3 lbs)
Small for gestational age infants
weigh less than 90% of all babies born at the same age
Medical problems of low birth weight babies
- Respiratory distress
-neurological
-Chronic lung disease, cerebal palsy, blindess, deafness
-cognitive
-attentional and behavioral
-mother's edu a factor