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32 Cards in this Set

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What are the functions of soil?
-anchor roots
-aeration of roots
-supply mineral nutrients
-supply moisture
-maintain pH suitable for plant growth
What are different types of soil?
-organic
-inorganic
What are 9 traits of organic soil?
-unstable and breaks down over time
-must consist of 20% organic matter
-peat, bark, compost, or manure added for improvement
-good water holding capacity
-good aeration
-permeable to water
-good fertility
-reduces erosion
Where does inorganic soil come from?
-mineral rocks which vary by location
List clay, sand, and silt in order from largest to smallest
What is a combination of all three known as?
-sand
-silt
-clay
+loam
What are aggregates and what causes these?
-soil particles that group into clumps
+greezing and thawing
+wetting and drying
+root growth
+earthworms
What forms the "glue" that holds soil particles together?
-Organic Material
-Clay
What are legumes good for in soil structure?
-Nitrogen fixing
-makes atmospheric Nitrogen available to the plant
-Some are deep-rooted perennials
-Opens up soil to water and aeration
List 7 traits of large particles such as sand
-large pores
-little structure
-good aeration
-good infiltration
-poor water holding capacity
-low fertility
-warms quickly in spring
List 6 traits of small particles such as clay and silt.
-small pores
-low aeration
-slow infiltration
-high water holding capacity
-high fertility
-warms slowly in spring
What are colloids?
-particles of clay and organic matter suspended in solution which attract and exchange cations
What is CEC?
Cation Exchange Capacity=the soil fertilty
List the CEC from greatest to least of O.M, sand, clay, and silt.
O.M > Clay > Silt > Sand
How are nutrients absorbed into plants?
-as ions
Are high rainfall soils acidic or basic?
-acidic
Are low rainfall soils acidic or basic?
-basic
What are some plants that like acidic conditions?
-ericaceous plants (blueberry, cranberry, azalea, rhododendron)
What does liming do?
-raises the pH which makes the soil more basic and is used on acidic soils
Why should you not lime your lawn after applying fertilizer that cotains ammonium nitrate?
-ammonium is converted to ammonia gas which can burn foliage
How can you acidify soil?
-elemental sulfur (temporary)
-ammonium sulfate (temporary and not recommended)
What causes iron chlorosis in plants?
-basic soils
Where do you find intervienal chlorosis?
-often on acid-loving plants like roses, fruit trees, azaleas, and rhododendrons.
What are the 16 elements required for plant growth?
C HOPKINS CaFe Mg B Mn Cu Zn Mo Cl
"C. Hopkins Cafe Managed By Min's Cousins Mo and Cleo"
Where do plants get C, H, and O from?
-atmosphere and water
What are the macronutrients?
-N, P, K most often deficient in soils
-S, Ca, Mg
What are the micronutrients?
-Fe, B, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cl
What are some organic fertilizers?
-manure
-fishmeal
-seaweed
-bloodmeal
-bonemeal
-cottonmeal
-sewage sludge
*these often contain micronutrients
What are some inorganic fertilizers?
-ammonium nitrate
-superphosphate
-muriate of potash
*often pure without micronutrients
*often concentrated so cheaper to transport and apply
What is often the most limiting nutrient in soil?
-Nitrogen
How can excess Nitrogen affect plants?
-reduced flowering
-reduced fruiting
-greater vegetative growth
What are the fertilizer analysis latters and what do they stand for??
NPK
Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium
When are fertizers considered high or low analysis?
-high > 30%
-low <=30%