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19 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Primary aspects of overlap between Ezekiel and Jeremiah

1. Prophets of YHWH
2. Priestly Background
3. Harlotry Motif
4. Acted Prophecy (symbolic actions)
5. New Covenant
6. Shepherd Motif
Overlap of thier calling as a prophet of YHWH
Both are (priestly) prophets called to preach immanent judgment of exile and promised restoration of the remnant. (Jer 1:1; Ezek 1:3)
Overlap of their background as a priest
The both came from a priestly family and both commented on the liturgical behavior of the priests and the people
Overlap of the harlotry motif
Both use the harlotry or whoredom motif to describe Judah’s prostitution to other Gods

(Jer 3:6, Ezek 23:5)
Overlap of Acted Prophecy
both called to take action symbolic of their prophecies
Examples of the acted Prophecy of Jeremiah
1) TRIP to the potter’s house / breaking of the pot (18, 19)
2) PURCHASED a field during the siege as a symbol of the restored future in the land (32)
3) SOILING of the linen loincloth (13)
4) WEARING bonds and yokes (27,28)
Examples of the acted Prophecy of Ezekiel
1) CLAY tablet under siege
2) LYING on his side to bear the punishment for the sins of Israel.
3) COOKING bread over excrement
4) HAIR burned, cut, and blown hair depicting the destruction of Jerusalem.

(All in Ezek 4-5)
Overlap of New Covenant
1) Both Contain New Covenant PASSAGES & TERMS (Only Jer. uses the explicit term but both use the term “covenant of eternity” in Jer 32.40, Ezek 16:60b).

2) In both the new covenant involves God’s PUNISHMENT and RESTORATION of Judah, accompanied by SPIRITUAL RENEWAL among the people

3) Found in Jeremiah 31:31-34 Ezekiel 11:19-20 (really 14-21); 36:26-28
Overlap of Shepherd Motif
Both priestly prophets speak about the shepherds (PRIEST'S) FAILURE with the sheep (God’s people): They were STARVING and EXPLOITING the sheep instead of serving them by leading them into faithfulness, and holiness in worship, relationships, and society. (Jer 23:1-4; Ezek 34).
The details of Ezekiel acted prophecy
Depicting the siege of Jerusalem

1) Laying on LEFT SIDE 390 days represents the years which the people had been weighed down by sin.
2) Laying on RIGHT SIDE for 40 days to symbolically bear the sin of the house of Judah
3) FACING his model of the siege of Jerusalem while he lay down
4) Laying BARE his arm, and prophesying against the city. ( bared arm symbolized YHWH’s intention to come as a warrior and to judge the city).

During this he made bread to eat according to a divinely prescribed recipe. He ate meager portions to picture the siege conditions. The bread was to be baked over human excrement (mercifully changed to cow dung) to make him ritually unclean – symbolizing that the people would eat ritually defiled food in exile.
Differences between Jeremiah and Ezekiel
1) GEOGRAPHIC location – Jeremiah in Jerusalem / Ezekiel in Babylon
2) AUDIENCE – Jeremiah Leaders & fearful people to whom deportations and siege were occurring / Ezekiel to the exilic community
3) MODE expression (apocalyptic intensity) Ezekiel’s has more simile and fantastic visions attempting to express the otherwise ineffable (more emphasis on glory of the Lord)
4) OPPOSITION level – Jeremiah’s life threatened multiple times, jailed, was not allowed to marry. / Ezekiel was married (although she died).
The sole OT reference to “new covenant”
Jeremiah 31:27-40
The structure of Jeremiah's explicit New Covenant Passage
Three paragraphs
1) Israel and Judah will be restored after exile (vs. 27-30)
2) God promises the people a “new covenant” (vs. 31-37)
3) Jerusalem will be rebuilt (again restoration from exile) (38-40).
The three paragraphs of Jeremiah’s explicit New Covenant Passage are marked off
by repetition of the phrase “Behold, the days are coming, declares the LORD” (27, 31, 38).
What does the second paragraph (31-37) of Jeremiah’s explicit New Covenant Passage deal with?
A problem the people had: they lacked inward covenant reality and had no genuine circumcision of the heart.

The new covenant is what fixes this.
The “new covenant” is NOT a new redemptive-historical era. Rather, “new covenant” means “new situation in which the people embrace the covenant from the heart” which begins after the return from exile.
OT New Covenant passages in other OT books
Isa 42:6 (five others in Isa per Collins, 91)
Ezek 36:22-32 (four others in Ezek)
Key NT new covenant passages
Heb. 8
2 Cor. 3
Gal 4
How does NT talk about the new covenant?
Describe new covenant in terms of an inward reality of a relationship with God.

The “old covenant” refers to the people’s historic response of rejecting God and apostasy, not an older redemptive-historical era that is somehow defective.
In both Testaments what does "new covenant" refer to?
The “new covenant” refers to covenant reality, faith, genuine relationship with God.