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294 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Project management
the ability to get things done, must support the higher vision of the organization the project management activities are occurring in.
Projects must be in alignment with the organization’s
vision, strategy, tactics, and goals
At the launch of a project, the project manager must
have inherited the vision of the project
A project phase
allows a project manager to see the project as a whole and yet still focus on completing the project one phase at a time.
Projects are
temporary endeavors to create a unique product or service
All projects must
have an end date
The sum of the project phases comprises
the project life cycle.
A project life cycle is
the duration of a project
The project manager will be accountable for several things at the end of a project phase
The performance of the project to date

The performance of the project team to date

Proof of deliverables in the project phase

Verification of deliverables in alignment with the project scope
Money already spent on a project is called
sunk costs
the cost of the work to complete is
one of the elements that should be taken into consideration when considering to kill a project.
Project phases are also known
stage gates
Stage gates are used often in
manufacturing and product development
A stage gate allows a project to
continue after performance and deliverable review against a set of predefined metrics
If the deliverables of the phase, or stage, met the predefined metrics
the project is allowed to continue
Should the deliverable not meet the metrics
the project may not be allowed to pass through the gate to move forward
As a project manager, you should identify the requirements
as close to the project launch as possible
The completion of a phase may also be known as
a phase exit
Exit criteria are typically
inspection-specific and are scheduled events in the project schedule
Exit criteria can include many different activities, such as:
Sign-offs from the customer

Regulatory inspections and audits

Quality metrics

Performance metrics

Security audits

The end of a project phase
What type of house are you building? What are the characteristics of the house? What are the expectations from the people that will be living in the home?
The architects and the designers would work with the requirements to create the specifications for the house in alignment with the requirements of the customer
Within this phase, there’d be logical activities and mini-phases necessary to reach the project completion, such as the foundation, the framing, the roofing, and so on
Before the home owners moved into their new home, they’d want to inspect the house for the quality of the building and confirm its functionality
Operational transfer
Ah, yes, the home is complete and the homeowners have moved in, approving the project and thereby heralding its end.
Each phase within the preceding project has logical activities that dictate the point of the
phase, the goal of each, and what the deliverables of each phase likely will be.
At the end of each of the listed phases
there’d likely be an inspection and confirmation that the project is moving towards its completion. The completion of a phase allows a project to move into the next phase
Projects are like snowflakes
no two are alike. Sure, sure, some may be similar, but when you get down to it—each project has its own unique attributes, activities, and requirements from stakeholders
Within each project, one attribute that typically varies from project to project is
the project life cycle
the project life cycle determines
not only the start of the project, but also when the project should be completed. All that stuff packed in between starting and ending? Those are the different phases of the project.
The PMP exam will test your knowledge on the outcome of project phases
rather than the idealistic outputs of a project phase.
Know that each phase
creates a deliverable of some sort and allows the project to move forward if the deliverables meet preset metrics.
In other words, the launch, series of phases, and project completion
comprise the project life cycle
project will have similar project management activities,
but the characteristics of the project life cycle will vary from project to project
The project’s feasibility is part of
The project’s feasibility is part of
Once the need has been identified
a feasibility study is called for to determine if the need can realistically be met.
In most organizations, however, projects may begin
with a feasibility study
The outcome of the feasibility study may tell management several things
Whether the concept should be mapped into a project or not

If the project concept is worth moving forward with

The expected cost and time needed to complete the concept

The benefits and costs to implement the project concept

A report on the needs of the organization and how the project concept can satisfy these needs
Project life cycles
comprised of phases, move the project along
What work will be completed in each phase of the project?

What resources, people, equipment, and facilities will be needed withineach phase?

What are the expected deliverables of each phase?

What is the expected cost to complete a project phase?

Which phases contain the highest amount of risk?
Project life cycles allow a project manager to determine several things about the project, such as:
Armed with the appropriate information for each project phase, the project manager can plan for
, schedules, resource availability, risk management, and other project management activities to ensure that the project progresses successfully
While projects differ, there are also other common traits from project to project. The following lists a few examples
Cost and resource requirements are lower at the beginning of a project, but grow as the project progresses. Once the project moves into the final closing process, costs and resource requirements taper off dramatically.

Projects fail at the beginning, not at the end. Projects are more likely to fail near their beginning—and more likely to succeed near the end of their life cycle. In other words, the odds of completing are low at launch and high at completion.

The further the project is from completing, the higher the risk and uncertainty. Risk and doubt decrease as the project moves closer to fulfilling the project vision.

Changes are easier and more likely at the early phases of the project life cycle than at the completion. Stakeholders can have a greater influence on the outcome of the project deliverables in the early phases, but in the final phases of the project life cycle, their influence on change diminishes. Thankfully. Changes at the beginning of the project generally cost less and have lower risk than changes at the end of a project.
In this phase, you’ll work with business analysts, electrical engineers, customers, and manufacturing experts to confirm that such a camera is feasible to make
First build
Management loves the positive information you’ve discovered in the proof-of-concept phase—they’ve set a budget for your project to continue into development. Now you’ll lead your project team through the process of designing and building a video camera according to the specifications from the stakeholders and management. Once the camera is built, your team will test, document, and adjust your camera for usability and feature-support.
Prototype manufacturing
Things are going remarkably well with your video camera project. The project stakeholders loved the first-build and have made some refinements to the design. Your project team builds a working model, thereby moving into prototyping the video camera’s manufacture, testing its cost effectiveness and ease of mass production. The vision of the project is becoming a reality.
Final build
The prototype of the camera went fairly well. The project team has documented any flaws, and adjustments are being made. The project team is also working with the manufacturer to complete the requirements for materials and packaging. The project is nearing completion.
Operational transfer
The project is complete. Your team has successfully designed, built, and moved into production, a wonderful, affordable video camera. Each phase of the project allowed the camera to move towards completion. As the project came closer and closer to moving into operations, risk and project fluctuation waned
Stakeholders are those fine folks and organizations
who are actively involved in the project, or will be affected by its outcome—in other words, people, groups, businesses, customers, and communities that have a vested interest in the project
On the Job
In high-profile projects, where stakeholders will be in conflict over the project purpose, deliverables, cost, and schedule, the project manager may want to use the Delphi Technique to gain anonymous consensus among stakeholders. The Delphi Technique allows stakeholders to offer opinions and input without fear of retribution from management.
Stakeholders, especially those not in favor of the project deliverable, may try to influence the project itself. This can be attempted in many ways, such as through:
Political capital leveraged to change the project deliverable

Change requests to alter the project deliverable

Scope addendums to add to the project deliverable

Sabotage, through physical acts or rumors, gossip, and negative influence
The deliverables
typically allow the project to move forward to the next phase—or allow the project to be terminated based on the quality, outcome, or condition of the phase deliverable
Recall that stage gates
allow a project to continue (after performance and deliverable review) against a set of predefined metrics.
Kill points
like phase gates, are preset times placed in the project when it may, based on conditions and discovery within the phase, be “killed.”
like phase gates, are preset times placed in the project when it may, based on conditions and discovery within the phase, be “killed.”
like phase gates, are preset times placed in the project when it may, based on conditions and discovery within the phase, be “killed.”
The project life cycle
comprised of the logical phases within the project itself
Project stakeholders have a
vested interest in the outcome of the project.
Stakeholders include
the project manager, project team, management, customers, communities, and anyone affected by the project outcome
Project managers should scan the project outcome in order
to identify all of the stakeholders and collect and record their expectations, concerns, and input regarding the project processes
project manager in a functional organization
will have relatively low authority
A project manager in a matrix environment
can have low, balanced, or high authority over the project. A project manager in a projectized organization will have a high level of authority on the project
Your role as the project manager is to
identify, align, and ascertain stakeholders and their expectations of the project. Stakeholder identification is not always as clear-cut as in the preceding example. Because stakeholders are identified as people that are affected by the outcome of your project, external customers may be stakeholders in your project, too
Stakeholders can go by many different names
internal and external customers, project owners, financiers, contractors, family members, government regulatory agencies, communities, cities, citizens and more. The classification of stakeholders into categories is not as important as realizing and understanding stakeholders’ concerns and expectations. The identification and classification of stakeholders does allow, however, the project manager to deliver effective and timely communications to the appropriate stakeholders.
Project managers must scan the project for
hidden stakeholders
The project manager should investigate all parties affected by the project to
identify all of the stakeholders—not just the obvious ones. Hidden stakeholders can influence the outcome of the project. They can also add cost, schedule requirements, or risk to a project.
Project manager
The project manager is the person—ahem, you—that is accountable for managing the project. They guide the team through the project phases to completion
Project customer
The customer is the person or group that will use the project deliverable. In some instances, a project may have many different customers. Consider a book publisher for children. The bookstores distribute the children’s book. The adults pay for the book. The children read the book. There is also some consideration given to the user versus the customer. The user uses the product; the customer pays for it. A stakeholder can be both a user and a customer.
Performing organization
On your project, you’ll have a project team. Who do the team members work for? The performing organization is the entity that employs the people responsible for completing the prject work. In some instances, the performing organization can be a vendor whose project team is completing the project work for another entity, the customer.
Project team
The project team is the collection of individuals that will, hopefully, work together to ensure the success of the project. The project manager works with the project team to guide, schedule, and oversee the project work. The project team completes the project work.
Project sponsor
The sponsor authorizes the project. This person or group ensures that the project manager has the necessary resources, including monies, to get the work done. The project sponsor is someone within the performing organization that has the power to authorize and sanction the project work, and is ultimately responsible for the project’s success
Key Project Stakeholders
Project manager
Project customer
Performing organization
Project team
Project team
When it comes to stakeholder expectations
nothing beats documentation
Project managers must recognize the role of the project as
as a component within an organization
The Executive Layer
sets the vision and strategy of the organization. The business layer asks, “Why is the project important to our organization? Our vision? Our strategy?”
The Functional Management Layer
of the pyramid must support the Executive Layer’s objectives. Specifically, the Functional Management Layer is concerned with tactics to accomplish the vision and strategy as set by upper management. The Functional Management Layer asks, “What is the project purpose? What business processes are affected?”
The Operational Layer
of the pyramid supports the Executive and the Functional Management layers. This layer is concerned with the specifics of getting the work done. The Operational Layer asks, “How can the work be accomplished? How can we reach the desired future state with these requirements
Completing projects for others
These entities swoop into other organizations and complete the project work based on specifications, details, and specification documents. Classical examples of these types of organizations include consultants, architectural firms, technology integration companies, and advertising agencies
Completing projects internally through a system
These entities have adopted management by projects (discussed in Chapter 1). Recall that organizations using management by projects have accounting, time, and management systems in place to account for the time, cost, and worth of each project.
Completing projects as needed
These non-project-centric entities can complete projects successfully, but may not have the project systems in place to efficiently support projects. The lack of a project support system can cause the project to succumb to additional risks, lack of organization, and reporting difficulties. Some organizations may have special internal business units to support the projects in motion that are separate from the accounting, time, and management systems used by the rest of the organization.
When it comes to project management, organizations fall into one of three models
Completing projects for others
Completing projects internally through a system
Completing projects as needed
Organizational culture includes


Organization policies and procedures

Type of business

Maturity of business
The organizational structures we’ll discuss include

Weak matrix

Balanced matrix

Strong matrix


On the Job
Being able to recognize your organizational structure in regard to project management will allow you to leverage and position your role as a project manager effectively
Functional organizations are entities
that have a clear division regarding business units and their associated responsibility
Project managers in functional organizations have the following attributes:
Little power

Little autonomy

Report directly to a functional manager

The project manager may be known as a Project Coordinator or Team Leader

The project manager’s role is part-time

The project team is part-time

The project manager may have little or no administrative staff to expedite the project management activities
Matrix structures are
organizations that have a blend of departmental duties and employees together on a common project. Matrix structures allow for project team members to be from multiple departments working toward the project completion. In these instances, the project team members have more than one boss. Depending on the number of projects a team member is participating in, they may have to report to multiple project managers as well as their functional manager.
Weak matrix
The project team may come from different departments, but the project manager reports directly to a specific functional manager
In weak matrix organizations, the project manager has the following attributes:
Limited authority

Management of a part-time project team

Project role is part-time

May be known as a project coordinator or team leader

May have part-time administrative staff to help expedite the project
A balanced matrix structure has many of the same attributes as a weak matrix
but the project manager has more time and power regarding the project.
Attributes of a project manager in a balanced matrix are
Reasonable authority

Management of a part-time project team

Full-time role as a project manager

May have part-time administrative staff to help expedite the project
Attributes of a project manager in a strong matrix include
A reasonable to high level of power

Management of a part-time to nearly full-time project team

Full-time role as a project manager

Has a full-time administrative staff to help expedite the project
Project managers in a projectized structure enjoy a high level of autonomy over their projects, but also have a higher level of responsibility regarding the project’s success
Projectized Structure
Project managers in a projectized structure have the following attributes
High to complete authority over the project team

Works full-time on the project with his team (though there may be some slight variation)

Has a full-time administrative staff to help expedite the project
The project manager has autonomy of the project decisions. Improves communication as teams focus on current project work.
Strong matrix
Project team may be assigned to a project from 50 to 90 percent of its duration. The project manager has a high level of authority. This model also provides good communication.
Balanced matrix
The project manager has balanced project authority with management. This model allows efficient use of functional resources.
Weak matrix
The project manager has little project authority and acts as a project coordinator.
Ideal for organizations with recurring projects, such as manufacturing. Everyone on the project knows who is in charge: the functional manager.
So what can a project manager expect from the project office? How about:
Project management software

Training and mentoring

HR and project manager support



Administrative help

Project oversight

Access to knowledge repository
Project Communication can be summed up
as “who needs what information and when
Project managers spend the bulk of their time
communicating information—not doing other activities
Communication is
a two-way street; it requires a sender and a receiver
A key part of communication
is active listening
There are several communication avenues
Listening and speaking

Written and oral

Internal to the project, such as project team member to team member

External to the project, such as the project manager to an external customer

Formal communications, such as reports and presentations
Sender-receiver models
Communication requires a sender and receiver. Within this model, there may be multiple avenues to complete the flow of communication, but there may also be barriers to effective communication. Other variables within this model include recipient feedbacks, surveys, checklists, and confirmation of the sent message
Media selection
There are multiple choices when it comes to sending a message. Which one is appropriate? Based on the audience and the message being sent, the media should be in alignment. In other words, an ad-hoc hallway meeting is probably not the best communication avenue to explain a large variance in the project schedule
The tone, structure, and formality of the message being sent should be in alignment with the audience and the content of the message.
When it comes to formal presentations, the presenter’s oral and body language, visual aids, and handouts all influence the message being delivered.
Meeting management
Meetings are forms of communication. How the meeting is led, managed, and controlled all influence the message being delivered. Agendas, minutes, and order are mandatory for effective communications within a meeting.
Negotiating Project Terms and Conditions
Project managers must negotiate for the good of the project. In any project, the project manager, the project sponsor, and the project team will have to negotiate with stakeholders, vendors, and customers to reach a level of agreement acceptable to all parties involved in the negotiation process. In some instances, typically in less than pleasant circumstances, negotiations may have to proceed with assistance. Specifically, mediation and arbitration are examples of assisted negotiations. Negotiation proceedings typically center on:
Negotiation proceedings typically center on

Technical approach

Project scope



Changes to the project scope, schedule, or budget

Vendor terms and conditions

Project team member assignments and schedules

Resource constraints, such as facilities, travel issues, and team members with highly specialized skills

Exam Watch
The purpose of negotiations is
to reach a fair agreement among both parties
to reach a fair agreement among both parties
the ability to discern between the cause and effect of the problem.
Root cause analysis looks beyond
the immediate symptoms to the cause of the symptoms—which then affords opportunities for solutions.
A balance between the implied and the explicit
A balance between the implied and the explicit
A balance between the implied and the explicit
A balance between the implied and the explicit
Standards are
accepted practices that are not necessarily mandatory
regulations are
rules that must be followed—otherwise, fines, penalties, or even criminal charges may result
On the Job
Every industry has some standards and regulations. Knowing which ones affect your project before you begin your work will not only help the project to unfold smoothly, but will also allow for effective risk analysis. In some instances, the requirements of regulations can afford the project manager additional time and monies to complete a project.
project lifecycle corresponds to the project management framework and provides several benefits
Each phase results in some type of deliverable.

Phase completion shows accomplishment and progression.

Phase completion allows time for review to determine if the project should move forward.

Phases allow the project to be progressively elaborated
Before projects can move into the implementation
Before projects can move into the implementation
Project plans, like project deliverables
pass through progressive elaboration
The project manager and the stakeholders work together
The project manager and the stakeholders work together
Organizational structures
control how the project manager can obtain resources, the level of authority the project manager can expect, and the participation of the project team
There are five organizational structures
There are five organizational structures
The project management framework is like the skeleton of any project
It makes up the bones that support the project and provides strength and rigidity.
The project management framework holds up the project
and allows it to operate in the environment within which it was created.
The project life cycle is
is comprised of phases
The completion of a project phase may also be known
a kill point
External customers are not key stakeholders in this instance as they are not actively involved in
an internal project
Communication is the key general management skill
a project manager will use the most
Managing has to do with consistently producing key results
that are expected by stakeholders
Arbitration is a form of negotiation
Technically, it is a form of assisted negotiation
To influence an organization (in order to get things done),
a project manager must understand the explicit and implied organizational structures within an organization.
Rumors and gossip can sabotage a project
This is an example of cultural achievability
The detail design document is an output of the requirements
gathering phase
The project office supports
the project manager
Recall that projects are
Recall that projects are
Kill points are typically at the end of a project phase
A kill point does not mean the project is killed, just that the potential for termination exists.
Exit criterion are
activities or evidence that allow a project to move forward. Stakeholder expectations are universal to the entire project, not just to one project phase.
The project life cycle is comprised
of all of the project phases within a project
of all of the project phases within a project
determine if it is feasible for a project to exist
determine if it is feasible for a project to exist
determine if it is feasible for a project to exist
Projects typically have low costs and low demand for resources early in
their life cycle
As the project moves closer to completion, the likelihood of
risk diminishes
Tracey will most likely have a low amount of authority in a
functional organization structure
Projectized structures often
have project team members assigned to the project on a full-time basis
Projects with much risk and reward are most likely to be accepted within an
entrepreneurial organization
The project office is the best choice since its role is to support
the project manager
All of the different elements in project management are integrated
The cost, time, scope, cultural achievability, technical achievability, and more are all related and interdependent
A small change, delay, decision (or lack thereof)
can amplify into serious problems further down the project timeline.
There are two types of processes:
Product-orientated processes
Product-orientated processes
Product-orientated processes
These processes are the activities that complete a project’s phase and life cycle. Recall that the project’s life cycle is comprised of the completion of the phases. In other words, the product-orientated processes within a project complete phases, which in turn complete the project. The processes within a project are unique to each project. The concept of project life cycles was discussed thoroughly in Chapter 2.
Project management processes
These processes are the activities that are universal to all projects. These activities comprise the bulk of the project management body of knowledge and will be discussed in detail in Chapters 4 through 12. These processes are common to all projects from construction to technology.
Project management processes are
the processes you’ll want to study
Product-orientated processes
on the other hand, are unique to the organization creating the product.
The following are the five project management process groups and what occurs under each
Initiating The project is authorized.

Planning Project objectives are determined, as well as how to reach those objectives with the given constraints.

Executing The project is executed utilizing acquired resources.

Controlling Project performance is monitored and measured to ensure the project plan is being implemented to design specifications and requirements.

Closing The project and its various phases are brought to a formal end.
The project is authorized
Project objectives are determined, as well as how to reach those objectives with the given constraints
The project is executed utilizing acquired resources
Project performance is monitored and measured to ensure the project plan is being implemented to design specifications and requirements
The project and its various phases are brought to a formal end
The five process groups can be remembered
Project initiation, while simple on the surface
admits that there is some problem that a solution should solve
The needs of the current state are then answered by the deliverables of the proposed project. These needs might have to do with:
Reducing costs

Increasing revenues

Eliminating waste

Increasing productivity and efficiency

Solving a business or functional problem

Taking advantage of market opportunities
On the Job
Business reasons for why a project is created depend on your business objectives. If you’re pitching a project to management, address the most prevalent business needs first. So first, from a business perspective, answer the following question: “Why is this important to my organization?”
A feasibility study is conducted
to prove a problem actually exists, document the opportunities at hand, and then determine if a project can be created to resolve the problem or take advantage of the opportunity cited. A feasibility study may also look at the cost of the solution in relation to the possible rewards gained by its implementation.
Typically, the product description describes
the solution or realized opportunity that the project will accomplish.
The project charter authorizes
the project, officially naming the project manager and authorizing the project work. Such documents come from Senior Management and allow the project manager to begin the project work with the support, permission, and trust of management.
Project charters authorize. When you think of the project charter
think authority for the project manager
The project manager is officially named
in the project charter, but the involvement of the project manager in the project will likely come early on in this process group.
project manager will need to know the expectations of his role
in the type of organizational structure he is participating in (functional, matrix, projectized, or composite)
Within large or highly technical projects, planning can also be known as
as rolling wave planning
Rolling wave planning focuses
detailed planning on the immediate activities of the project, rather than on remote, future activities that may be affected by the outcome of the direct project results.
Rolling wave planning is an
acceptable planning solution for long projects whose late activities in the project schedule are unknown or will be determined based on the results of early project phases
acceptable planning solution for long projects whose late activities in the project schedule are unknown or will be determined based on the results of early project phases
describes the work, and only the required work, necessary to meet the project objectives. The scope statement establishes a common vision among the project stakeholders to establish the point and purpose of the project work. It is used as a baseline against which all future project decisions are made to determine if proposed changes or work results are aligned with expectations.
The project team completes the project work. The project manager relies on the project team to do several tasks, including
Complete the project work

Provide information on the work needed to complete the project scope

Provide accuracy in project estimating

Report on project progress
The work breakdown structure (WBS) is an
organized collection of the project-deliverable components to be created by project work. The project manager cannot complete this activity alone
initial risk assessment allows the project manager
the project team to determine what high-level risks may influence the feasibility, resources, and requirements to complete the project
Project Network Diagram (PND
illustrates the flow of activities to complete the project and/or the project phase. It identifies the sequencing of activities identified within the WBS and determines which activities may be scheduled sequentially versus in tandem.
Cost estimates can be calculated a number of different ways
such as through top-down estimates, bottom-up estimates, or the dreaded informal “hallway estimates.” All estimates should identify a range of variance reflective of the degree of confidence of the estimate, the assumption the estimate is based on, and how long the estimate is valid
The project schedule is dependent on
the creation of the WBS, the PND, and the availability of the resources
The project budget is
the cost of the project, cash flow projections, and how the monies will be spent. The project budget should cover the cost of the team’s time, facilities, and all foreseeable expenses
are needed to alert management as to when monies must be available for the project to continue.
Cash flow projections
Risk assessment is an
in-depth analysis of the project risks through qualitative and quantitative analysis
Qualitative risk analysis
calls for a probability and impact matrix
Risks are typically categorized
as high, medium, and low
Quantitative risk analysis
is a more in-depth study of the identified risks.
Quantitative analysis
also uses simulations and decision tree models
Risks may be
accepted, avoided, mitigated, countered, or planned for through contingency
Risks are also assigned to
risk owners who will monitor thresholds and triggers.
The quality management plan
details how the project will map to the organizational quality policy; for example, ISO 9000 or Six Sigma specifics
On the Job
Stakeholder analysis allows the project manager and the project team to determine the expectations of the customer. If the customer doesn’t know what their expectations are, the project manager cannot decide for them. The project manager and the customer must be in agreement with what the project should create before the creation begins.
project manager and the project team should create a change control plan
that will specify how the project scope may be changed, what the procedure to change the scope is, and what the requirements are to make a change
On large or high-profile projects, the project manager may be working with a Change Control Board (CCB
to determine if changes should be approved and factored into a project scope
The communications plan determines
who needs what information, how they need it, and when it will be delivered
who needs what information, how they need it, and when it will be delivered
team meetings, reports, expectations for reports, and expectations of communication among team members. The communications plan must account for all needed communications within the project.
It has been said that 90 percent of a project manager’s time is
is spent communicating
Communicating equates to
project management.
A work authorization system is a method that
allows work to begin according to schedule and circumstance
Processes are activities
are completed by people, not things.
Larger projects require more
detail than smaller projects
Projects fail at the beginning
not the end
Planning is
Planning, executing, and controlling are
tightly integrated
Vendor solicitation includes
obtaining quotations, bids, and proposals for the services or the goods to be purchased for the project completion.
Procurement involves administering
the contracts between the buyer and the seller
Failure to adhere to the quality assurance program may result in
rework, penalties, and project delays
Processes are activities
Processes are activities
Beginning Vendor Solicitation
In most projects, vendors are involved at some point. Part of the executing process is to solicit vendors should they need to be involved with the project. Adequate timing is required for the procurement process to allow the vendors to provide adequate, appropriate information for the project—and to allow the project manager to make an educated decision on which should be selected. Vendor solicitation includes obtaining quotations, bids, and proposals for the services or the goods to be purchased for the project completion.
Determining Vendor Source
In most projects, vendors are involved at some point. Part of the executing process is to solicit vendors should they need to be involved with the project. Adequate timing is required for the procurement process to allow the vendors to provide adequate, appropriate information for the project—and to allow the project manager to make an educated decision on which should be selected. Vendor solicitation includes obtaining quotations, bids, and proposals for the services or the goods to be
Administering Contracts
Procurement involves administering the contracts between the buyer and the seller. The contract must be fair and legal. The contract typically is a document that represents the offer and acceptance of both parties. Some organizations may utilize centralized contracting or a contracting office to manage all project contracts
Mapping to Quality Assurance
As the project work continues, the project team and the project manager will need to verify that the project work results are mapping to the organization’s quality assurance program as described in the quality management plan. Failure to adhere to the quality assurance program may result in rework, penalties, and project delays, as shown in the following illustration
Dispersing Project Information
Information must be disseminated according to the communications plan. Stakeholders will need to be kept abreast of the project status. Management may want milestone reports, variance reports, and status reports. Customers will have specific communications requirements. All of these demands, from any stakeholder, should be documented within the communications plan—and then followed through in the execution process.
Ensuring Team Development
The project manager must work with the project team members to ensure that their level of proficiency is in agreement with their obligations on the project. This may involve classroom learning, shadowing between project team members, or on-the-job training. The success of the project work is dependent on the project team’s ability. Should the team or team members be lagging in required knowledge to complete the project work, additional education and development is necessitated
Controlling Processes
Controlling processes are the activities that ensure the project goes according to plan and the actions to implement when evidence proves the project is not going according to plan. Specifically, the controlling processes verify project work and the response to that work. In addition, the project manager must work to control the predicted cost and schedule of the project. Variances to the cost and schedule will affect the project’s success
Ensuring Quality Control
Quality control (QC) measures work results to determine if they are in alignment with quality standards. If the work results are not of quality, QC uses methods to determine why the results are inadequate and how to eliminate the causes of the quality deficiencies.
Providing Scope Verification
Scope verification is the process of verifying that the work results are within the expectations of the scope. It is typically done at project phase completion with the customer to formally accept the product of the project work. Should scope verification fail, the project scope must be compared against the work results. If the scope has not been met, the project may be halted, reworked, or delayed during a decision making process by the customer.
Implementing Scope Change Control
Implementing Scope Change Control
Implementing Scope Change Control
The project manager must follow the change management plan to ensure unneeded changes to the project scope do not occur. This includes scope creep that the project team may be completing on its own accord. For example, the project team members may be making additional adjustments to the equipment they are installing in a project, even through the project scope does not call for the additional adjustments. Scope change control ensures that the documented procedures to permit changes to scope are followed
Leading Configuration Management
This process ensures the description of the project’s product is precise, complete, and that it meets the demands of the stakeholder requirements. In addition, configuration management serves as a control agent for changes to the project deliverables. It monitors, guards, and documents changes to the scope. In some projects, configuration management may be the change control system. In other projects, it is part of the change control system.
Overseeing Change Control
The project manager must protect the project scope from unneeded change. Needed changes must be proven, documented, and analyzed for impacts on cost, schedule, and risks. The project manager must work within the confines of the change control plan and follow its guidelines regarding change requests, change approval or denials, and documentation. Overseeing change control may involve a Change Control Board that reviews, approves, or rejects the proposed changes for the project
Managing Cost Control
Controlling the project’s cost requires accurate estimates and then a check and balance against those estimates. Procurement management, cash flow, and fundamental accounting practices are required. Though cost control is dependent on project expenses, it also hinges on hidden and fluctuating expenses such as shipping, exchange rates for international projects, travel, and incidentals. Thus, accurate and thorough record keeping is imperative.
Enforcing Schedule Control
Schedule control requires constant monitoring of the project’s progress, approval of phase deliverables, and task completion. Slippage must be analyzed early in the project to determine the root cause of the problem. Activities that slip may indicate inaccurate estimates, hidden work, or a poor WBS. Quality issues can also throw the project schedule when the time to redo project activities is taken into consideration, as shown in the following illustration. Finally, the project manager must also consider outside influences and their affect on the project—for example, weather, market conditions, cultural issues, and so on.
Monitoring Risk Response
Risk management requires risk ownership and monitoring by the project team members. As activities in the PND are completed, the project manager and the risk owners must pay special attention to the possible risks and the mitigation plans that may come into play. Risk responses, should they be acted on, may cause secondary risks, cost increases, and schedule delays. Risk response must be rapid and thorough—and their outcomes well-documented for historical reference for downstream activities and other projects.

On the Job Risk response may also include risk impact statements that detail project risk, its possible impact on the project, and its probability. The project manager and management sign the risk impact statement for each identified risk beyond a predetermined score.
Ensuring Performance Reporting
The project manager and the project team must work together to report and record accurate completions of work. Performance reporting stems from accurate measurement by the project team, proof of work completion, and factual estimates. The project manager then churns the reported projects through earned value management, schedule baselines, cost baselines, and milestone targets. The status reports to management are reflective of where the project has been, where it stands now, and where it’s heading
Identifying Closing Processes
Closing a project is a wonderful feeling. Project closure has many requirements for it to be successful, however. Project closure requires a final, complete effort by the project manager, the project team, the project stakeholders, and management to officially close the project and move onto other opportunities. The activities in this process are typically associated with the end of a project, but most may also be completed within project phases, as shown in Figure 3-4.
Auditing Procurement Documents
The project manager has spent the money, but on what? The procurement audit process requires accountability for the monies that have been invested in the project. In some instances, the financial audit is more formal, and an accountant or a finance professional reviews the project’s accounting. In other instances, the process is considered a debriefing and is completed with the project manager and management. In practically all instances, the intensity of the procurement audit is relevant to the autonomy of the project manager: the more power and responsibility the project manager has in an organization, the more accountable he is for the project budget.
Completing Scope Verification
Scope verification is a control process. However, at the end of the project the scope must be verified for final acceptance. This process is completed with the project manager and the key stakeholders. Scope verification is the process of inspecting, touring, and “taking a walk-through” of the project deliverables to confirm that the requirements of the project have been met. Scope verification may happen at different intervals throughout the project, such as at key milestones or phase completions. Scope verification at the end of a project may require a formal sign-off from the customer that the project is complete and to their satisfaction
the scope has been completed
the scope has been completed
Beware of exam questions that tell you the scope is completed but that the customer is not satisfied.
Know first that if the scope is complete, the project is complete
Closing Vendor Contracts
At the completion of a project or project phase the vendor contracts must be closed out. Confirmation that vendor invoices and purchase orders have been fulfilled, met, and paid is needed to complete the vendor closeout process. Closing out vendor contracts may also require proof or delivery of the goods or services purchased. The vendor contracts may be audited to confirm the vendor responsibilities have been met
Closing Administrative Duties
When the project is completed, the project manager must finalize all reports, document the project experience, and provide evidence of customer acceptance. The project manager will create a final report reflecting the project success, or failure. The project manager will also provide information reflective of the project product and how it met the project requirements, and then will complete the lessons learned documentation
Submitting Final Reports
Once the project documentation has been completed, the project manager will submit the final reports to the appropriate parties as outlined in the communications management plan. The final reports will include variance reports, status reports, cost and schedule accountability, and team member performance reviews, as required by the performing organization
The project records should be archived so that other
project managers can use the information on their projects
archives should serve as a wealth of historical information
for later reference, future project managers, and reference for versioning, updates, or potential changes to the current project deliverables
Reassigning project team members is of utmost importance in
projectized organization where project team members are with a project full-time through completion.
In a functional matrix environment
the project team may fluctuate at phases or milestones as they complete their assignments and then move onto other activities within the organization
five processes
initiation, planning, execution, control, and closure, are not a series of events, but rather an integrated process, the activities within one process may coincide with an activity within another. For example, a project manager may be working through the execution process to administer the contracts of a vendor while simultaneously working with the vendor through scope verification.
Within each process, there are three common components:
Inputs Documented conditions, values, and expectations that start the given process

Tools and techniques The actions to evaluate and act upon the inputs to create the outputs

Outputs The documented results of a process that may serve as an input to another process
Scope planning
To create a document that will guide project decisions.
Scope definition
To breakdown the project deliverables into manageable elements. The sum of the smaller elements equate to the project scope.
Activity definition
To define the required activities, and only the required activities, to complete the project scope
To ascertain the required resources to achieve the defined activities to complete the project work. Resources include people, equipment, and materials
Resource planning
Activity sequencing
To determine the best sequence of planned activities within the project work.
Activity duration estimating
To determine the estimated required work units to successfully complete the defined activities.
Cost estimating
To determine an estimated amount of monies to complete the project work using the defined facilities, services, and goods
Risk management planning
To determine the risks within the project and how to react to the identified risks
Schedule development
To determine the project schedule based on the sequence of activities, the required resources, and the required monies. The schedule development process reveals an estimated reflection of when all of the required work can be completed with the given resources.
Cost budgeting
To determine the estimated cost of the activities to complete the project work
Project plan development
Creating a coherent compilation of the other planning processes to guide the project execution.
Quality planning
To determine the quality assurance standards used by the organization. The quality assurance standards that are relevant to the project must be planned into the project.
Communications planning
To determine who needs what, when they need it, and in what modality (paper, electronic, and so on) it may be needed
Organizational planning
To determine the project roles and responsibility. This also determines the reporting structure between the project manager, the project team, and management.
Staff acquisition
To acquire the needed people to complete the determined project work
Risk identification
To identify the risks, rewards, and penalties associated with the project
Qualitative risk analysis
To prioritize the impact of the risks on the project (typically in a high, medium, and low ranking).
Quantitative risk analysis
To measure and consider the probability and associated impact of the risks on the project.
Risk response planning
To avoid, eliminate, reduce, or create a planned reaction to the identified risks within the project
Procurement planning
To determine what goods and services must be procured and when the goods and services will need to be procured in the project life cycle.
Solicitation planning
To determine the possible vendors to provide the goods and services for the project.
Project plan execution
To complete the project according to plan. The project plan may also be adjusted based on the outcome of the facilitating processes.
To accept quotes, bids, proposals, and offers to complete the solicited work as defined through solicitation planning
Source selection
To determine which source (vendor) will fulfill the procured good or service
Contract administration
To manage a fair and balanced relationship between the buyer and the seller.
Quality assurance
To meet the organization’s quality standards. QA is an ongoing process that measures the quality of the work results against the demands of the quality standards of the performing organization
Team development
To develop the competencies of the project team as a whole and the individual members on the project team.
Information distribution
To follow the details of the communications management plan; specifically to disperse the required information to the correct parties according to their identified needs and modalities.
Performance reporting
To determine variances, project performance, and forecasting of project outcome.
Integrated change control
To manage change across all facets of the project
Scope verification
To verify that phase and project deliverables are in alignment with customer expectations. Scope verification formalizes the acceptance.
Scope change control
To protect the project scope from change.
Cost control
To prevent unnecessary changes to the project budget.
Quality control
To conform to the required organizational quality standards and to remove or improve faulty, below quality, performance.
Risk monitoring and control
To monitor and maintain risks, responses to risk, introduction of new and secondary risks. In addition, allows for control of currently identified risks and the planned responses to the identified risks.
Contract closeout
To complete and finalize any procurement issues such as payment, inspection of procured services and goods, and any open project items.
Administrative closure
To gather, evaluate, and disseminate the required information on the project or phase, its performance, quality, and completeness. Administrative closure also includes completing the lessons learned document and filing for future reference
Here are some general guidelines to know about customizing project processes:
Facilitating processes may be shifted in sequence to meet the demands of the project (such as the timing of the procurement processes).

All processes may not be needed on all projects, but the absence of a project doesn’t mean it wasn’t needed. The project manager and the project team should identify all of the processes required to make the project a successful one.

Projects that are resource dependent may define roles and responsibilities prior to scope creation. This is because the scope of the project may be limited by the availability of the resources to complete the scope.

The processes may be governed by a project constraint. Consider a predetermined deadline, budget, or project scope. The project constraint, such as a deadline, will determine the activity sequencing, the need for resources, risk management, and other processes.

Larger projects require more detail. Remember that projects fail at the beginning, not the end.

Subprojects and smaller projects have more flexibility with the processes based on the process usefulness. For example, a project with a relatively small team may not benefit from an in-depth communications plan the same as a large project with 35 project team members would.
Product-orientated processes are
unique to the product the project is creating
Communications is an activity that will consume
much of the project manager’s time, but it is not one of the five process groups.
Initiating, planning, controlling, executing, and closing
is the correct order of the processes presented
Rolling wave planning is
description of the planning process in most large projects. It requires the project manager and the project team to revisit the planning process to address the next phase, implementation, or piece of the project
Involving the stakeholders in the planning processes
Involving the stakeholders in the planning processes
By involving the stakeholders at different aspects of the project, their requirements are more likely to be met
By involving the stakeholders at different aspects of the project, their requirements are more likely to be met
The outputs of the planning phase are a direct input to
the executing processes
The initiating processes serve as a direct input
to the planning processes
Planning is the iterative process evident
throughout the project
The correct order is
scope planning, scope definition, activity definition, activity sequencing (Table 3-1 shows the order of these core planning processes).
Quality Planning is the
only facilitating process listed.
Organizational planning is the facilitating planning process
which defines roles and responsibilities—and the reporting structure within the project.
Mitigation is a response
to risk
The cost budgeting process creates
the cost baseline.
The risk management plan is the output of the
risk management planning process
The cost baseline is an output of the cost budgeting process
it is not an input to schedule development
Projects fail at the beginning
not the end. A poor requirements document, inadequate needs assessments, unfulfilled planning, and more early processes can contribute to project failure