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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The location of a point on earth's surface which can be expressed by a grid reference (i.e., latitude and longitude)-
absolute location
before the Common Era; the culturally neutral equivalent of B.C (before Christ) used extensively by world historians and social scientists.
first ten amendments to the Constitutiton which limit governmental power and outline basic rights and liberties of individuals.
Bill of Rights
very large ecosystems made up of specific plant and animal communities interacting with the physical environment (climate and soil). They are usually identified with th ecimate and climax vegetation of large areas of the earth's surface.
the limit or extent within which a system exists or functions, including a social group, a state, a country, or physical feature.
the Common era the culturally neutral equivalent of A.d. (Anno domini: in the year of our Lord) used extensively by world historians and social scientists.
constitutional mechanisms that authorize each branch of government to share powers with the other branches and thereby check their activities.
checks and balances
member of a political society who owes allegiance to and is entitled to participation in and protection by and from the government.
a representation of some part of the earth's surface using lines along which all points are of equal elevation above or below a fixed point, usually sea level.
contour map
learned behavior of a people, which includes their belief systems and languages, their social relationships, their institutions and organizations, and their material goods (i.e., food, clothing, buildings, tools and machines).
form of government in which political control is exercised by all the people, either directly or through their elected representatives.
the study of population statistics, changes, and trends based on various measures of fertility (adding to a population), mortality (subtracting from a population), and migration (redistribution of a population).
the spread of a desert condition in arid and semiarid regions resulting form a combination of climatic changes and increasing human pressures, such as overgrazing, removal of vegetation, and cultivation of marginal land.
an area of the world that is changing from uneven growth to more constant economic conditions, and that is generally characterized by low rates of urbanization, relatively high rates of infant mortality and illiteracy, and relatively low rates of life expectancy and energy use.
developing country
form of political organization in which governmental power is divided between a central government and territorial subdivisions (e.g., among the national, state, and local governments).
a geographic database that contains information about the distribution of physical and human characteristics of places or areas. In order to test hypotheses, maps of one characterization or a combination can be produced from the database to analyze the date relationships. The system collects data about places on earth, stores it, and manipulates the information on command to answer questions and solve problems.
geographic information system (GIS)
doctrine that permits federal courts to declare unconstitutional acts of Congress, the executive, and the states.
judicial review
locations having distinctive characteristics which give them meaning and character, and distinguish them from other locations.
the theory that the earth's surface is composed of rigid slabs or plates is theoretically responsible for present-day configurations of continents, ocean basins, and major mountain ranges and valley systems.
plate tectonics
any group that seeks to elect government officials under its label.
political party
an area with one or more common characteristics of features, which give it a measure of homogeneity and make it different from surrounding areas.
information gathering about the earth's surface from a distance (usually referring to the use of aerial photography or satellite images).
remote sensing
an aspect of the physical environment that people value and use to meet a need for fuel, food, industrial product, or something else of value.
principle that every member of a society, even a ruler, must obey the law.
rule of law
on maps the relationship or ration between a linear measurement on a map and the corresponding distance on the earth's surface. For example, the scale 1:1,000,000 means one unit (mile or kilometer) on the map and represents 1,000,000 similar units on the earth's surface. Also refers to the size of places or regions being studies. For example, is one looking at something at a local scale, regional scale, national scale, or globally?
division of governmental power among several institutions that must cooperate in decision making.
separation of powers
the specific place where something is located, including its physical setting (e.g., on a flood plain).
the general location of something in relation to other places or features of a larger region (e.g., in the center of a group of cities).
ultimate, supreme power in a state which, in the United States, rests with the people.
a map representing a specific spatial distribution theme, or topic (e.g., population density, cattle production, or climates of the world).
thematic map