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137 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 habitats
rainforest, deciduous seasonal forest, montane forest, grassland savannah
5 niches
insectivore, sapivore, frugivore, follivore, opportunisic omnivore
what does carrying capacity influence?
group size, # of species
sportive lemur
fecal eating
long intestine to forment
langur, colobus
2 part stomach
sheer size helps it digest leaves
what are two examples of sapivores?
marmoset, lemur
what are two types of frugivores?
seed disperser (dont digest seed; symbiotic relationship) and seed predator
what is the most species a forest can support?
15 species; at least 2-3 per forest
What are the characteristics of a K Strategist (most primates)?
stable, predictable; fewer offspring; longer lives; slower development; high parental investment; large body; intraspecific competition; mortality steady
What are the characteristics of a R(eproduction) Strategist?
variable, unpredictable; high reproduction rate; high infant mortality; fast development; low parental investment; small body; variable population size; catastrophic
When do most births take place?
Rainy season
When does most mating take place?
Dry season
Who was George Schaller?
UW Zoology grad student who studied mountain gorilla in 1963.
"no complete competitors can co-exist"
Russ Mittermier
can't live in the same area
can live in the same area
What are the 8 sympatric species?
golden haired tamarin, squirrel monkey, 2 species of capuchin, howler (leaves), spider (fruit), and 2 species of saki
What is a barrier for most primates?
Water (want to have babies during wet season to help them survive)
Other barriers
altitude, desert or savannah
What do all primates like to eat?
fruit (esp figs)
eats poisonous bugs
What do orangutans, gibbons, and spider monkeys have in common?
all are frugivores
what causes gorillas to have black teeth?
tanin from leaves they eat
what is bamboo high in?
What do macaques and baboons have in common?
more omnivorous and eat bird eggs
what are some cues of carrying capacity?
black or brown water means nutrients leaking through soil into water which means a relatively lower carrying capacity which leades to fewer species and smaller groups
more than 1 species in a forest
competition to exclude others
africas predators
felines, raptors
neotropics predators
birds - esp south america
asia predators
felines - tigers, leopards
how many kills were reported in the africa savannah?
46,000 total (75 baboons) by 58 leopards, 7 lions, 7 hyenas, 2 crocodiles, 1 python
2 harpy eagles in guyana
killed 1/3 of monkeys (47/141) (1 cebid per month)
ecuadorian hunter gatherers
killed 562 wooly monkeys and 246 howlers in a 3 year period
What did Glen Hansfateu study?
parasite avoidance - baboons and sleeping tree groves in Amboseli
how long did it takes hansfateu's baboons to return to the original acacia grove?
9.1 days
what is herpes samiri?
latent virus in squirrel monkeys (like mild mono)
herpes samiri transmission
vertical transmission (from mother to offspring)
why is herpes samiri deadly?
infectious and lethal to several other NW monkeys (owl monkeys, tamarins, marmosets, spider)
what monkey is not affected by herpes samiri?
Strateies for fending off predators (5)
(1) get bigger (2) multi male social groups (3) communication -cooperative calling (4) avoid edges, top of canopy (5) leaping or cryptic motion
monkey island in colombia
brought 3000 squirrel monkeys to sell; dropped to 1000; island was mostly underwater in the rainy season; trees werent suited to squirrel monkeys
what are 4 social organizations?
(1) exclusion (2) inhibition (3) emigration (4) dominance
what are two types of mate selection?
sexual dimorphism and female choice
what are 4 types of sexual behavior?
mating, seasonality, puberty, and endocrinology (hormones and behavior)
what does seasonally polyestrus mean?
repeated times of mating - as soon as conception happes cycle stops
what are ecological zeitgebers?
timing mechanisms for mating
testosterone is highest at what time?
6 am (testosterone rises during the night and drops during the day)
when do primates mate in temperate zones when they ignore rain?
during a period with short days and long nights
what did j vandenbergh study?
estrogen injections into female rhesus monkeys
ow monkeys rely on mostly ____ cues
estrogen rises during the ____ 2 weeks then declines
first (follicular phase)
progesterone rises during the _____ 2 weeks
last (progesterone is made when the egg leaves - luteal)
what is the source of progesterone?
corpus luteum
estrogen _____ mating and progesterone acts as the ___ switch
stimulates(estrogen); off(progesteron)
what is receptivity?
willingness for a female to accept the male
what are aliphatic acids?
signals sexual readiness of female (more w/estrogen) OW primate is not good at smelling these
what is ethology?
naturalistic behavior of a species (european tradition of behavioral research)
what is sociobiology?
group behavior genetics and evolution of social behavior (more likely to protect relatives due to shared dna)
What are ultimate reasons for being social?
reproductive strategies, predator defense, raising of offspring, resource utilization, and population dispersal
what are proximate reasons for being social?
sex (sexual attraction), fear reduction, social bonding, finding food, and territoriality
"Social life of monkeys and apes"
Sally Zuckerman (1932)
What did Zuckerman say were the 2 main reasons for being social?
sexual attraction and dominance hierarchy (Londong zoo observatory)
"gregarious tendency"
what is obligative?
genetic reasons for social behavior
what is facultative?
learned reasons for social behavior
what are social group characteristics?
size, # of males, type of dominance relations, cohesiveness and stability, emigration patterns
What sex leaves the group in chimps and gorillas?
female leaves groups in chimps and gorillas
what sex leaves the group in monkeys?
males leave the group in monkeys
What are the 4 social structures?
(1) solitary (2) monogamous pairs (3) one male w/ harem (4) multi male/ multi female
what are the multi male/ multi female types?
sex segregated (dont interact much but travel together), age graded (1 dominant leader), fission fusion (live apart and live together sporatically)
what are some solitary primates?
galago, mouse lemur, orangutan are all solitary
what are some characteristics of solitary primates?
territorial, females more social than males, males push out sons
p charles dominique
robert martin
mouse lemur
What are some monogamous primates?
marmoset, tamarin, gibbon, mentawl langur
what are some characteristics of monogamous primates?
territorial, less social dimorphism, more paternal care (dad often carries kids), and both m/f leave or assist in care of younger siblings
what are some one male w/female harem primates?
howler, guenons, patas
what are some characteristics of one male w/female harem primates?
sexual dimorphism prominent, OW monkeys sons emigrate due to dad driving them out,
what do langurs often do?
infanticide; kill all babies of the main dominant male (also hamydras and geladas)
what are some multi male / multi female primates?
ground living OW monkeys - squirrel monkeys, gorillas, chimps
what are some characteristics of multi male / multi female groups?
sexual dimorphism, more females than males - females more social, male dominance hierarchy
sexual segregation
more peripheral - reduces male tensions (ringtailed lemur, squirrel monkeys, talapoin)
what is an age graded group?
has an alpha male - Ex: Silver back
what are two fission fusion primates?
muriqui and chimp
which primate has a female matriarchy w/ affiliated males?
robert hinde
gradation of group structures
robert hinde
behavioral units > individual predispositions > interactions/time > social relationships > social group structure
hans kummer
hybrid zone in ethiopia (awash natl park)
interbreeding between anubis - hamydras
what type of social group is a hamydras in?
squirrel monkeys in S America
segregated s of amazon, male - female dominance, male avoidance, males submissive - sit lower
mouse lemur
japanese macaque
multi male groups
s of amazon
eye patch flatter
n of amazon
clown like
prosimian pregnancy duration
2-4 months
monkey pregnancy duration
5.5-7 months
ape pregnancy duration
8 months
are twins common in primates?
No rhesus monkey (1/1600) humans (1/60-80)
behavior changes during pregnancy
lethargy, sexual abstinenece, eating/drinking changes, raging hormones
b marriot
less of vertical strata for food sources, changing association and ranging, isolation (in some species), pimiparous- less play
birth for chimps is a ____ event
estrogen and progesterone
at highest during pregnancy, increases during conception, highest right before birth
raises after conception for a few months
raises during pregnancy, decreases slightly before birth
why is cortisol high during pregnancy ?
sugar levels up which inhibits immune system (otherwise would reject baby as foreign object)
low until shortly before birth then rises
peaks slightly before birth; helps with contractions & delivery
why do primates eat the placenta after birth giving? (placentophagia)
odors- helps avoid predation, hormones, nutrients, remove from baby due to weight, blood transfusion
functions of placenta
antibody transfer, maternal immuglobin G to fetus before birth, P.I.
when do most births happen?
10 pm - 2 am
"civilization and its discontents"
sigmund freud - leader of unit=social law, most dont like being followers
"social life of monkeys and apes"
sally zuckerman
"on aggression"
konrad lorenz
"the naked ape"
desmond morris
"territorial imperative"
robert ardrey
two reasons for dominance
defense of resources (space) and access to mates (mate selection)
"pecking order"
dominance measures
aggression, threats, symbolic displays, location, displacement, food/water competition tests, sex, grooming, attention structure
what causes dominance?
(1) mating season (2) limited number of receptive females (3) limited food, water (4) shade trees/sleeping trees
Frans de Wal
reconciliation, "chimpanzee politics"
dominance is a _____ construct
dominance is not an attribute of _____ or synonomous with ______
individuals; aggression
motivation for dominance
higher or lower depending on context, unfamiliarity and xenophobia affect dominance
functions of dominance
space, mate, resources, "priority of access to desired, but limited incentives"
toshisada nishida
community- fission/fusion, "unit groups"
chimp groups are organized around what sex?
males - stay in birth community and move up dominance hierarchy
males from ______ invaded and killed males from _____
kasakela (invaders) ; kahama (killed)
goodall noticed that chimps eat _____ more than expected
tool use in chimps is passed down through ____
culural methods