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37 Cards in this Set

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Which theorist proposed the idea of cognitive ability?
Jean Piaget
What were the four stages of development for cognitive ability?
Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete Operational
Formal Operational
What are the characteristics and educational implications of the Sensorimotor stage?
Characteristics
1. Ages 0-2
2. cog. dev. thru use of body and senses
3. obj. permanence and language dev. later in stage
4. egocentrism

Educational Imp.
a. provide mult. obj. of various shapes, colors, sizes
b. allow for active engagmt. with obj.
What are the characteristics of the Preoperational stage?
Characteristics
1. Ages 2-7
2. begins using symbols but cannot manipulate them
3. realism, animism, artificialism, transductive reasoning, centering, egocentrism, and irreversibility
4. beg. of repres.
5. egocentric & socialized speech

Educ. Imp.
a. deferred imitation, symbolic play, drawing a& mental images
b. encourage lang. .usage
What are the characteristics of the Concrete Operational stage?
Characteristics
1. ages 7-11
2. perf. mental oper. w/concrete obj., not verbal statements
3. conservation, seriation, classification, & # concepts
4. verbal understanding

Educ. Imp.
a. classification activities
b. integ. act. allowing connections b/w ideas prev. thought to be separate
What are the characteristics of the Formal Operational stage?
Characteristics
1. ages 11 & up
2. abstract thinking
3. may sep. real from possible, hypothetic/deductive reasoning
4. dev. of logico-mathematical structures
5. language freed from concrete, able to express the possible

Educ. Imp.
a. challenge, do not frustrate
b. be aware of adole. limitations
c. encourage analysis of information in drawing conclusions
What are schemes? (Piaget)
An individual's generalized way of responding to the world; method of organization.
New information is organized into existing schemes using three approaches. What are they?
Assimilation, Accommadation, & Equilibration
What is assimilation? (Piaget)
Dealing with new info. in a manner that is consistent with a present scheme.
What is accommodation? (Piaget)
Dealing with a new exp. by modifiying an old scheme or forming a new scheme.
What is equilibration? (Piaget)
A period of flux, happens when individuals are attempting to adjust prior schemes with new experiences that do not fit into their existing shemes.
Which educational theorist proposed the idea of the Zone of Proximal Development?
Lev Vygotsky
What is the zone of proximal development?
Implies an optimal time for students to learn; spans from unactualized potential to actualized potential.
According to Lev Vygotsky, two factors affect a child's cognitive ability.
Social and Cultural Environments
What was Vygotsky's perspective on the social aspect of cognitive ability?
Children's social interactions with those more knowledgeable aids in cognitive development
Which educational theorist was a proponent of scaffolding?
Jerome Bruner
What is scaffolding?
Support learners need when faced with a task that is too challenging to accomplish alone. Scaffolding can aid students in moving away from unactualized to actualized potential in the zone of proximal development.
What methods maximize the effectiveness of reaching actualized potential in the zone of proximal development? (Vygotsky)
1. activate prior knowledge
2. less complex taks first
3. work with an expert to plan a task
4. social interactions, peer teaching
What is the information processing theory?
It emphasizes the impact of maturity on cognition. As students grow, their attention, learning strategies, knowledge base, and metacognitive ability improves.
Who proposed the eight stages of psychosocial development?
Erik Erikson
What is stage 1 in Erikson's stages of psychosocial development?
Trust vs. Mistrust
age 0-18 mo.

Trust: A child learns that others can be dependable and reliable if nurtured and basic needs are met.

Mistrust: A child learns that the world is dangerous, upredictable and undependable if parents are cold and un-nuturing.
What is stage 2 in Erikson's stages of psychosocial development?
Autonomy vs. Shame
age 18 mo.-3yrs

Autonomy occurs when self-sufficient behavior is encouraged and children develop as individuals.

Shame occurs when caretakers demand too much and no autonomy is allowed. Children dev. shame and doubt regarding their ability to handle problems.

Educ. Imp.
Students need consistent, reasonable discipline with opportunities to do for themselves; provide positive role models.
What is stage 3 in Erikson's stages of psychosocial development?
Initiative vs. Guilt
age 3-6

Initiative occurs when a child is given indep. to plan and take resp.

Guilt about needs and desires occur when children are discouraged by adults

Educ. Imp.
Support planning efforts and help w/realistic choices that consider others' needs.
What is stage 4 in Erikson's stages of psychosocial development?
Industry vs. Inferiority
age 6-12
*Critical period for building self-esteem

Industry occurs when hard work at lengthy tasks and work before pleasure is rewarded.

Inferiority occurs when children are punished or cannot meet expectations and results in feelings of inferiority about abilities.

Educ. Imp.
Child need opportunities to achieve recog. and praise by producing things
What is stage 5 in Erikson's stages of psychosocial development?
Identity vs. Role Confusion
age 12-18
*Critical period for building self-esteem

Identity occurs if students are treated as adults and challenged with realistic goals, they achieve a sense of identity regarding the role they'll play as adults.

Role Confusion occurs if students are treated as children and have mixed feelings about their place in society.

Educ. Imp.
Treat students as adults, challenge with realistic goals, address issues of identity.
What is an imaginary audience?
Students typically believe they are the center of everyone's attention.
What is personal fable?
The belief of teenagers that they are completely unlike anyone else.
What four responses do adolescents exhibit when making choices regarding their identities? (James Marcia)
Identity Diffusion
Identity Foreclosure
Identity Moratorium
Identity Achievement
What is identity diffusion?
inability to commit to choices
What is identity foreclosure?
making a commitment based on someone else's choices
What is identity moratorium?
desire to make a choice, but not now
What is identity achievement?
committing to choices and consistently maintaining them
Who proposed the three levels of moral reasoning?
Lawrence Kohlberg
What are the levels of moral reasoning?
Preconventional Morality (ages 4-10)
Conventional Morality
(ages 10-13)
Postconventional Morality
Describe the stages of Kohlberg's Preconventional Morality level.
Punishment-avoidance: obedience based on individual, will disobey if they can avoid being caught.

Exchange of favors: right and wrong are defined in terms of consequences; children recognize needs' of others.
Describe the stages of Kohlberg's Conventional Morality level.
Good boy/girl: decisions based on pleasing others; intentions are important.

Law and order: children perceive rules to be inflexible and it's their duty to obey them.
Describe the stages of Kohlberg's Postconventional Morality level.
Social Contract: represent agreement among many people; rules are flexible and can be changed if inadequate.

Universal Ethical Principle: indiv. princ. transcend concrete rules; follow inner conscience.