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42 Cards in this Set

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Absorption
the amount of water that a clay body is able to draw into its surface at a particular stage in the ceramic process.
Atmospheric water
"wet" water that leaves the clay as it dries to the greenware stage and prior to the bisque firing
Biscuit or Bisque
the first firing(to 1800 degrees/cone 06)which makes the clay stronger yet porous and drives off its chemical water
Chemical water
water that is chemically bonded to the orginal clay but released during the bisque firing(through the process of sintering) at between 8-900 degrees- it dissipates inot the atmosphere, permently changing the clay and making it no longer able to be slaked.
Clay body
a useful mixture of ceramic materials combined for a specific purpose
Colorants
highly refined oxygen/mineral compounds that are added to a clay or a glaze to color it
Earthernware
clays that remain highly porous even when fired to their maturing tempature (cone 4 and below), have a darker reddish brown color, a coarse particle size, and are made up of large quanities of secondary clays; i.e.- terra cotta
Engobe
a combanation of ceramic materials that is halfway between a clay and a glaze and is "self-glazing" when fired on the surface of a pot
Fireclay
clay that is resistent to high tempatures( kiln shelves, supports and bricks are made from fireclay)
Flux
the lowest melting ingredient in a glaze, which causes the other ingredients in the glaze to also melt
Glaze
a combination of ceramic materials, that is applied to bisqueware and when fired to its maturing tempature melts and fuses into the clay to create a durable glassy surface
Glaze firing
the second or high firing(called "glost" firing by the british) which fuses the clay particles tightly together and matures the clay; also makes the clay body stronger and less porous and permanetly bonds the glaze to the clay body
Greenware
dry unfired clay which has lost all of its atmospheric water, become very fragile, and lighter in color and weight
Grog
fireclay that has been fired, ground up, and added back to a clay body- adds stability to the clay by helping to control the amount and rate of shrinkage in the drying and firing process
Kiln
a high tempature refractory oven used to fire clays and glazes to maturity in a controlled environment.
Leatherhard
half-way dry clay, displaying the characteristics of leather; i.e.pliable yet firm, without a surface "sheen", and resistant to showing fingerprints when touched
Matte glaze
a glaze with a crystalline surface structure that refracts and diffuses light to produce a soft and nonreflective appearence
Mature
the condition where a clay or a glaze is fired to its maximum firing tempature without it slumping, collapsing, distorting, or in the case of a glaze, is fired hot enough to melt the glaze without making it run
Oxidation
a kiln atmosphere in which sufficient oxygen is available to allow for a complete fuel combustion with little or no carbon monoxide being produced.
Peep hole
the view hole in the kiln through which the cones can be visually inspected to see if the firing is completed
Plasticity
the ability of a clay to be stretched or expanded without breaking, tearing, or collasping
Porcelain
a fine textured vitreous clay body that is usually light in color and relatively nonplastic because of the high amounts of kaolin that it contains
Pottery
useful ceramic objects made of clay
Primary clay
clays that remain close to their origin, remain relatively pure and light colored, have large particle size, are nonplastic, and are deposited in vertical beds(kaolin is our best example)
Pugmill
a machine used to mix clay; often able to remove unwanted air in the process
Pyrometter
an instrument used to measure high tempatures within a kiln(uses an electric current created when nickel and chromium metals are joined together and heated to high tempatures)
Pyrometric cones
small cone shaped pieces of clay that are carefully manufactured to melt at very specific tempatures; these show when the appropriate peak tempature has been reached inside of the firing kiln
Raku
a japanese reduction firing technique in which red hot pots are removed from the kiln when the glaze has matured, and then placed into an airtight metal container with paper, sawdust, leaves, straw, or another source of carbon; produces carbon monoxide and gives color to the glaze.
Reduction
a kiln firing where there is not enough oxygen present for a complete combustion, creating a "reducing" atmoshpere within the firing chamber, and large quanities of carbon monoxide.
Refractory
materials that are resistent to high tempatures (high in alumina and silica, refractories are used to make kiln bricks, shelves, and support furniture items.
Secondary clay
clays that travel a great distance from their original source(granite type rocks), picking up organic and mineral impurities along the way; they have small particle size, are plastic, shrink excessively, are dark in color, and are deposited in horizontal beds(ball clay is our best example)
Sgraffito
a decretive technique where the surface of a clay or glaze is carved through to allow a contrasting color to show from underneath.
Shards
broken pieces of fired clay
Slake(slaking)
the process where-by water is added to dry clay causing it to "melt" as it becomes moist and returns to a workable state.
Slip
clay in liquid suspension
Stain
a coloring oxide (colorant) mixed with water and applied to bisqueware to enhance a textured surface, or applied over a glaze to provide concentrated color in a specific area
stoneware
a blend of clays that when fired to maturity(between cones 4 and 10) becomes hard and durable, retaining a porosity level between 3% and 5%.
Terra cotta
a reddish brown earthenware clay that is commonly used for planters due to its porosity, almost universal availabilty, and economical cost.
Vitreous
hard, dense, and glasslike
Warping
distortion of a ceramic form caused by uneven drying, uneven heat flow through the kiln during firing, or placement on an uneven support surface for firing
Wax resist
applying a wax material to clay to seal its surface so that glaze can no longer be absorbed into that surface.
Wedging
the physical process of working clay on a flat surface to eliminate air, make the clay homogenous, and increase its plasticity.