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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Cellular respiration harvests what from ATP?
Chemical Energy
some kind of energy
What is the word equation for photosynthesis?
Carbon Dioxide + Water + Sunlight= Glucose (food)
What is the ultimate source of energy for life?
The Sun
It's in space
What high energy molecule is a product of photosynthesis and is needed for respiration?
A kind of sugar
In both plants and animals, 3 molecules are produced during cellular respiration. They are:
CO2, ATP and H20
CO2, ATP and ___
What is the major energy carrier used to power cellular work in both plants and animals?
A high energy molecule other than glucose
Types of energy:
Energy of motion:
Stored energy:
Kinetic energy, random molecular motion:
Potential energy stored in compounds:
Name two characteristics of a calorie.
Raise the temperature of water by 1 degree celsius.

1kcal= 1,000 calories
Raise the temperature of water by ______.

1kcal= ________
Why is the kilocalorie system used on food labels?
To make counting calories more practical, cut down on unnecessary numbers such as 0's
How is gasoline combustion in a car like cellular respiration?
Gas and sugar are both high chemical energy molecules that, when broken down by oxygen, produce ATP, CO2 and H2O.
How are gas and sugar related?
How are the products related?
What two components make up Adenosine?
Adenine : nitrogen containing compound

Ribose : 5 carbon sugar
________: nitrogen containing compound

________: 5 carbon sugar
How many phosphate groups are in a Triphosphate?
Come on, seriously. You need a hint for this?
Why is there so much potential energy in the phosphate tail?
Because each phosphate group is negatively charged, and same charges repel, the crowding of negative charges contribute to the potential energy.
Think about charges
Three main types of cellular work driven by ATP:
Cellular respiration requires _______.
No hint.
___ Membrane envelope (Mitochondria)
________ between membranes (Mitochondria)
Inner membrane highly _______.
_________ is the thick fluid inside the inner membrane. (Mitochondria)
Where does glycolysis take place?
In the cytoplasm
How is breathing related to cellular respiration?
In both processes, an intake of oxygen is required.
Think of intaking something.
How many ATP are used to split 6-carbon glucose in glycolysis?
How many ATP are produced from glycolysis?
How many net ATP?
4 and 2, respectively
How is ADP and NADPH produced from ATP and NAD+? (Glycolysis)
A water molecule removes a phosphate group from ATP making it ADP, and transferring a hydrogen and that phosphate group to a NAD+, making it NADPH.
Where does the Krebs cycle take place?
In the mitochondria- more specifically, within the matrix
Describe the Krebs Cycle.
2 Pyruvic acids are broken down into CO2. During the same process, Acetyl CoA is formed. The 2 carbons are mered with oxalycate to produce citrate. Finally, a series of chemical reactions produce CO2, NADH, FADH2, and ATP, one of the latter each for each pyruvic acid.
Where does the ETC and ATP synthase take place?
In the inner membrane of the mitochondria
Describe the process of ETC and ATP synthase.
Electrons donated from NADH pass through the ETC, causing protons (H+) to be passed through from the inner membrane into the space between the membranes, and producing one water molecule. Then, a FADH donates two electrons, which continues to transport more protons. Finally, the Hydrogen protons go back to the inner membrane, where they join with ADP molecules to become ATP molecules. The high concentration of protons in the intermembrane space creates potential energy, which is essential in the production of ATP.
How many ATP can be made from...
Krebs Cycle?
ETC/ATP synthase?
34 ATP
Leads to a total of 38 ATP
Fermentation is...
...the making of ATP without oxygen, primarily in muscle cells.
Why do your muscles hurt after you exercise?
Lactic acid builds up, as it is a byproduct of fermentation, processed pyruvic acids.
What makes champagne or beer bubbly?
In baker's yeast, what makes the bread rise?
CO2 bubbles
What happens to the alcohol when you bake bread?
It evaporates, due to the high heat.
What gives foods such as cheese and sauerkraut its sharp, sour flavor?
Lactic Acid
What are the by-products in muscle cell fermentation?
Lactate and NAD+
What are the by-products in yeast-cell fermentation?
Ethanol, CO2, NAD+