Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The reasons for the low voter turnout rates in the United States include:
a) ________ laws,
b) _____________ requirements,
c) ___________ of elections.
. How were blacks disenfranchised in the South after the Civil War?
a) by _____________ and electoral trickery, including
b) _______-only primaries,
c) rigged _________ tests, and
d) _____ taxes
Why do older adults vote in higher numbers than young voters?
a) Older voters are more likely to live in the same __________ from one election to the next and thus do not have to ___________,
b) Older voters are more likely to own their homes and to have _________, which heightens their sense of having a ______ in election outcomes.
What is meant by the law of imperfect political mobilization?
b) Every individual is torn by a diversity of his own interests,
What is the proparty aspect of the Constitution?
b) the right to agitate and to organize found in the 1st Amendment
a) there are many interests, including a great body of ________interests,
b) that the government pursues a multiplicity of policies and _________ and __________ interests in the process,
c) that each ___________ is capable of having many interests,
d) that interests cannot be mobilized ___________, and
e) that conflicts among interests are not cumulative, it seems reasonable to suppose that the government is not the ________ of blind forces from which there is no escape.
Democratic policy-makers have pursued tax policies that favor working-class and lower-middle-class Americans unlike Republicans whose tax policies favor the rich and business firms
The inflation rate has not topped 5 percent in any year during the past two decades
According to Patterson, the Fed's power can easily be exaggerated for the economy is impacted by a multiplicity of influences
. The restraints on the Fed are much stronger than those on popularly elected officials
When the federal government spends more in a year than it receives in tax and other revenues
b budget deficit
Which residents of the following state are the biggest winners nationwide since they pay a lot less in federal taxes than they receive in benefits ($2.03 for every dollar they pay in federal taxes):
d new mexico
A tax that individuals pay on capital-investments, such as property and stocks
b/ capital gains
. How high did interest rates rise on business and home loans in the late 1970s due to inflation?
c/ 15%
. According to U. S. Census Bureau calculations, the EITC lifts about a third of low-income Americans above the poverty line
. In 2010, about how many people live in poverty in the United States?
d 40 million
How much more likely is a single-parent, female-headed family to fall below the poverty line compared to a two-income family?
d) 5 times more likely.
Which states have the highest poverty rates in the United States above 18 percent?
, b) Louisiana, Mississippi, and New Mexico
. Which states have the lowest poverty rates in the United States with less than 8 percent?
d) New Hampshire and Utah
. Charles Murray in "Losing Ground," argued that members of the underclass
c) are permanent and prefer to live on welfare
. How many Americans have lost their jobs because of the recent economic downturn, doubling the unemployment rate since 2007?
a 7
At one point during the Great Depression, what percent of the nation's work force were unemployed?
c 25
The idea that government intervention is necessary in order to enhance personal liberty and security when individuals are buffeted by economic and social forces beyond their control
a positive Gov
Lyndon Johnson's programs that included federal initiatives in health care, education, public housing, nutrition, and other areas came to be called
c the great society
Government benefits given directly to individual recipients, such as the monthly social security checks that retirees receive
c/ transfer payments
Which of the following receive much broader public support? insurence programs
How much do social security and Medicare cost the federal government annually?
c. over 1 billion
On average how much do social security recipients receive each month?
b 1000
A ‘means test” refers to
c) a program that is restricted to financially poor beneficiaries
. Why are there significant differences in the level of poverty that exists from state to state?
a) States differ considerably in their natural ______,
b) level and type of _________ activity,
c) level of _________,
d) number of newer ___________, and
e) percentage of _________-group members.
. The 1996 Welfare Reform Act titled Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), stipulated that:
a) Americans’ eligibility for federal cash assistance is limited to no more than ______ years in their lifetime.
b) Within ____ years, the head of most families on welfare must find work or risk the loss of benefits.
c) Unmarried ________ mothers qualify for welfare benefits only if they remain in _______ and live with a parent or legal guardian.
d) Single ________ lose a portion of their benefits if they refuse to cooperate in identifying for child support purposes the _______ of their children.
. Americans are more likely than citizens of other democracies to contribute time and money to political and community organizations
The effort to introduce voter identification cards in Georgia and Indiana was to stamp out widespread fraud and abuse in the election process.
According to Patterson, the frequency of U.S. elections increases turnout by assuring that American democracy is better represented
What percent of the 200 million eligible voters in the United States turned out for the 2010 mid-term elections for Congress
a 40
Women did not secure the right to vote until 1920 with the ratification of the following amendment
d 21
What has been the average percentage voter turnout rate for presidential elections since the 1960s
c 62
. The fact that the United States does not have a major labor or socialist party has
, b) resulted in increasing the gap in voter turnout levels of lower and upper income persons is substantial
Scholars estimate that turnout in the U.S. would be roughly how many percentage points higher if it had European-style registration?
b) 10 percent
What is the proparty aspect of the Constitution?
, b) the right to agitate and to organize found in the 1st Amendment
Schattschneider argues that
c) in the democratic process, the nation moves from controversy to agreement, to forgetfulness,
What is meant by the law of imperfect political mobilization?
b) Every individual is torn by a diversity of his own interests
Most union members today work in the private sector, despite the fact that it has only a fifth of the number of workers as does the public sector
Although it might be thought that the interests of groups with large memberships would typically prevail over the interests of smaller groups, the reverse is more often true
The health insurance providers reacted to President Obama’s initiative for reform by:
a) embracing bi-partisanship and agreeing that dramatic changes needed to be implemented
Groups organized around nearly every conceivable policy issue, with each group pressing its demands and influence to the utmost, at whatever cost to the broader society:
a) single-issue
The following can be defined as any organization that actively seeks to influence public policy:
a) interest group
How many businesses does the U.S. Chamber of Commerce represent?
What percent of public-sector employees are unionized?
D 40%
People who join not for material gain, but to promote a cause in which they believe
d) purposive incentives
. The most powerful lobbying organization in Washington, D.C., that defends social security, Medicare, and other programs affecting retirees
, b) AARP
Since man is fallible, argues Madison, whenever he can exercise liberty, there will always be the public means to shape opinions into a unified faction
. Moral and religious motives can be relied upon to contain the sinister views of people, argues Madison
In order to get what it is they want from members of Congress, lobbyists will misrepresent facts, distort the truth, and arm twist, if necessary
Unlike iron triangles, where one's position is everything, an issue network is built around specialized interests and information
Whereas an iron triangle has an incentive for the participants to work together over the long term, the issue network disbands once the concern has been resolved.
There are no legal limits to the number of candidates that a Political Action Committee (PAC) can support during an election
According to Patterson, although the American system was designed to prevent a majority faction from trampling on the interests of smaller groups; ironically it also makes it relatively easy for minority factions to gain government support.
About how many lobbyists are currently in Washington, D.C., according to official records?
B/ 20
The following is based on group efforts to develop and maintain close contacts with policymakers through direct access to officials in order to influence their decisions
Many lobbyists worked previously in government, and some top officials were once lobbyists.
a) revolving door
The amount of money spent on lobbying in 2009 was:
D. 3.5
This group spends over $140 million annually to try and influence government policy:
a) U.S. Chamber of Commerce
Bringing together constituency pressure to bear on policymakers is referred to as:
What is the major reason why the United States has lagged behind other western societies in its handgun control laws
c) the National Rifle Association
What is the maximum amount of money that a Political Action Committee can legally give to a candidate running for federal office per election cycle (which encompasses both the primary and general election)
C 10000
. Today, PACs account for about how much of the total contributions to congressional campaigns?
d) 33%
What limitation does Citizens United place on corporations and labor unions when it comes to federal campaigns?
b) They cannot directly coordinate their support and activities with the candidates and parties,
According to Theordore Lowi, what is a problem with the pluralist theory of government?
c) there is no concept of the public interest in a system that gives special interests the ability to determine the policies affecting them,
The tendency of officials to support the policy demands of the interest group or groups that have a special stake in a policy
c) interest-group liberalism
Sabato believes that PACs may be making a positive contribution by providing the means to increase the flow of information during elections.
. PACs grew in number from 113 in 1972 to the following number by 1988
d) 4169
Which of the following PACs raise more money by direct mail and tend to be accountable to no one?
c idieology pacs
The most fundamental institutional check on PACs, according to Sabato are
c) free, regular elections
The United States relies more heavily on free-market mechanisms to make its production decisions, but not distribution, and consumption ones
. The result of overregulation is higher-priced goods that are more expensive for consumers and less competitive in the domestic and global markets
An example of the failure of excess government regulation was the rule eliminating lead in paint and gasoline
The federal government sells permits to mining firms, timber companies, and ranchers that give the latter the right to take or exploit resources.
At the height of the Great Depression of the 1930s, what was the level of unemployment?
C 25%
Adam Smith argued that the desire for profit guides the economic system toward the greatest welfare for all
The following refers to the relationship of inputs (the labor and material that go into making a product or service) to outputs (the product or service itself):
. Where is the optimal place to achieve efficiency for classical economists?
What is flawed about the assumption that the market always determines the price?
b) If a producer can acquire a monopoly or can successfully conspire with other producers to fix the price of the product, then efficiency is lost
The federal government tolerates business concentration, even permitting the merger of competing firms because:
c) government officials realize that market competition is no longer limited to domestic competition,
23. The nation’s parks and forests are subject to the following policy
. The government's approach to labor developed by the courts in the early 19th century
b) Union activity was regarded as interference with the natural supply of labor and the free setting of wages
. Government programs today provide billions of dollars of assistance annually to farmers, small and large, accounting for about what amount of net agricultural income?
a) more than a fourth
Campaign participation is higher in the United States than in Europe
Most of the European governments are federal in form, which means that there are fewer elective offices and thus fewer campaigns
. When the Bush administration was preparing for war against Iraq in 2003, there were only a sprinkling of protest demonstrations with just a couple of people
Protest activity is more common today in the United States than in many Western democracies.
Americans recognize that protest is part of America’s tradition of free expression, something to be tolerated, if not widely admired
. Why are Americans more likely than Europeans to work in a campaign?
b) Because Americans have more opportunities to do so
The following organization has over two million online activists who helped Barack Obama defeat Hillary Clinton for the 2008 Democratic presidential nomination
What is the chief obstacle to political participation?
b) the lack of motivation to join in,
The sum of the face-to-face civic interactions among citizens in a society
Which state has the highest volunteer rate involved in community service work of one type or another?