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96 Cards in this Set

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Median or mid-sagittal
right and left halves of the body
para-sagittal plane/sagittal plane
and plane parallel to the mid-sagittal plane
coronal plane (frontal plane)
anterior and posterior (front and back parts)
transverse (horizontal)
inferior and superior portions
medial
closer to the medial plane (pinkie is closer to the mid-saggital line)
lateral
farther away from the midline (thumb lateral to the pinkie)
anterior (ventral)
towards the front of the body (toes are anterior to the heel)
posterior (dorsal)
towards the back (the heel is poterior to the toes)
superior (crainial)
towards the head (head is superior/crainial to the knee because it is closer to the head; the heart is superior to the stomach)
inferior (caudal)
towards the feet (the knee is inferior/caudal to the head because it is closer to the toes)
superficial
structure closer to the surface (skin superficial to the muscles)Terms are relative to one another
deep
further from the surface
intermediate
between the deep and superficial terms
proximal
in reference to the root of the limbs (shoulder is proximal to the elbow)
distal
in reference to the root of the limb (the hand is distal to the elbow)
bones
support the body in the erect position-weight travels down the vertebral column
protection from bones
throacic skeleton, throacic vertebrae, sternum, and ribs for a protective cage for heart and lungs, and also the liver and spleen
movement from bones
skeletal muscles are attached and shorten when they contract
bones and hemopoetic marrow
this is a blood forming tissue
yellow marrow
contains fat
bones-calcium and phosphate
bones are the site for calcium and phosphate storage
three classifications of bones
development, location, shape
cartilage bones or endochondral bones
performed in cartlidge: long bones of the upper extremity that start out as cartlidge bones and after ossification, the cartlidge is replaced by bone.
ossification
the formation of bone, the conversion of fibrous tissue or of cartlidge into bone or boney substance
membrane bones
ossify directly from mesenchyme, they do not go through a cartilaginous stage, the clavicle is not performed in cartilage but ossifies directly from mesenchyme
mesenchyme
embryonic tissue of mesodermal origin
axial bones
lie in the main axis of the body (skull, vertebrae, sternum, ribs)
appendicular bones
bones of the appendages (upper and lower limb proper, pectoral girdle, clavicle, scapula, and hip bones)
shape
long, short, flat, irregular
long bones
humerus
short bones
wrist or ankle bones
flat bones
sternum
irregular shaped bones
vertebrae
joint
where bones or cartilages articulate with one another
fibrous joints
joined by fibrous tissue and allow little or no movement
suture joints
in the skull, a type of fibrous joint. only a small ammount of connective tissue, may ossify later
syndesmoses joints
has more connective tissue called interosseus membrane that allows some movement but not a lot (joint b/t radius and ulna)
gomphoses joints
connect tht root of the teeth to the bone of the alveolous
cartilaginous joints
bones joined by cartilage
synchondrousis or primary cartilaginous joint
temporary joint-plate of cartilage that unites two boney masses (femur, head of femur, and shaft of femur develop from an epiphyseal plate of cartilage that disappears later in life)
symphysis joint
united by fibrocartilage (fibrocartilaginous joint or secondary joint) such as the intervertebral disks
synovial joint
provides free movement at different degrees
joint capsule (articular capsule)
joins bones, has two components: outter fibrous component and innere synovial membrane
fibrous component of joint capsule
connective tissue that blends with the periosteum of the bone
periosteum
peri-around osteum-bone
synovial membrane
lining of the fibrous capsule that secretes a viscous fluid called synovial fluid, which fills up the synovial cavity (joint cavity) to lubricate the joint and reduce friction and nourishe the articular cartilage
synovial cavity
joint cavity
synovial cartilage
covers the joint to reduce friction, in the knee joint there are articulate disks or menisci that serve as shock absorbers. they increase the stability/spread of the joint
synovial joint classification
also by uniaxial (elbow only flexion and extension), biaxial (wrist flexion/extension as well as abduction/adduction), and multiaxial (shoulder, allows movement around all three axis) joints
movement of joints around the horizontal axis
allows for flexion and exptension (wrist can flex and extend from lateral to medial)
movement around the anterior/posterior axis
allows for adduction and abduction
arm abduction
arm is being raised up, away from the midline
adduction of arm
arm is being brought back down to the midline
movement around the vertical axis
allows medial (internal rotation) and lateral rotation
three types of muscle
cardiac, smooth, skeletal
cardiac muscle
found only in the heart-involuntary
smooth muscle
round in the walls of blood vessels, walls of ducts, bladder, and uterus-involuntary controlled by the autonomic nervous system
skeletal muscle
voluntary-attach to the skeleton and permit movement, the origin is stable and does not move inserion of the muscle is at the end that moves
origin of skeletal muscle
does not move
inserion of the skeletal muscle
the point attached that does move.
sternocleidomastoid (SCM)
prominant muscle in the neck and has attachment to the sternum and clavicle, called to sternal and clavicular head. The two heads unite and attach to the mastoid process, which is the insertion; contracts to elevate the sternum and clavicle which lifts the whole rib during forced inspiration and vigorous activity
fleshy part of the muscle
contractile part of the muscle, the fibers shorten upon stimulation to produce movment (rich blood supply)
ischemia
low oxygen state of the muscle
tensile strength of fleshy muscle
low, 77 lb/sq. inch
fibrous component of the muscle
the part that attaches the muscle to the bone and is not contractile. made of collagen fibers, low metabolic activity and poor blood supply.
cylindrical fibrous component
tendon
flat and broad fibrous component
aponeurosis
tensile strength of fibrous component
18,000 lb/sq. inch
strap muscle fibers
oriented parallel to the long axis of the muscle, have longer fibers that allow more movement
tennate muscles
feather-like, fibers run oblique to the long muscle: shorter but there are more of them. uni-pennate come in from one side, bi-pennate come from both sides, multi-pennate fibers come in from multiple angles
motor unit
nerve cell and its axon and all of the muscle fibers it innervates
small motor unit
allows for percise control, three muscle fibers innervated by one axon in the muscles in the eye
large motor unit
hip muscle 1600 muscle fibers/axon because fine control is not needed
gross movement
150-over 1000 muscle fibers/axon
prime mover (muscle function)
produces direct movement
antagonist muscles
opposes the prime mover
fixator muscles
keep the joint stable (during depression of the tongue, the hyoglossus is the prime mover, the styloglossus is the antagonist because it pulls the tongue up, the infrahyoid muscles act as fixators to stabilize the hyoid bone
hyoglossus
prime mover in sucking movement, depresses the tongue
styloglossus
pulls the tongue up, the antagonist in the sucking movement
infrahyoid muscle
fixator muscle that stabilizes the hyoid bone
anatomical method of determining muscle function
find the origin and insertion of muscle, which joint it crosses, and which axes are involved. ask yourself which movement it produces, pull on the muscle and see what moves
other methods of determinging muscle function
palpation, electrical stimulation, electromyography, clinical method
arteries
carry blood away from the heart that will branch out until the level of the capillary bed, where gaseous exchange occurs (most carry oxygentated blood)
pulmonary arteries
carry unoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs
veins
carry blood to the heart, the tributaries unite back to the heart (most carry unoxygenated)
pulmonary veins
carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
changing names of arteries
subclavian artery changes into the brachial in the arm, but it is the same thing
artery vs. vein
determine thickness of tunica media (smooth muscle); artery has thicker walls and is more firm/rigid; veins have thinner walls and tend to collapse on themselves giving flattened appearance
artery color appears
whiter
vein color appears
darker
how does blood return to the heart?
veins, pushed by negative pressure in the thorax
musculovenous pump
important in the limbs because blood has to work against gravity to get back to the heart (veins of the limbs have bicuspid valves)
when valves become incompetent
vericose veins
anastomoses
when vessels join together (ulnar artery in the arm, giving another pathway for blood to get back and forth if the main pathway is blocked (this does not happen in end arteries)
angiography
procedure where an opaque dye is injected into a vessel, determines the health of a vessel (can reveal aneurysms or show plaque of buildup)
most veriable structure
vessels (especially the veins) or the bicep might have three heads with extra insertions.